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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 676
Author(s):  
Vamsi K. Amalladinne ◽  
Jamison R. Ebert ◽  
Jean-Francois Chamberland ◽  
Krishna R. Narayanan

Unsourced random access (URA) has emerged as a pragmatic framework for next-generation distributed sensor networks. Within URA, concatenated coding structures are often employed to ensure that the central base station can accurately recover the set of sent codewords during a given transmission period. Many URA algorithms employ independent inner and outer decoders, which can help reduce computational complexity at the expense of a decay in performance. In this article, an enhanced decoding algorithm is presented for a concatenated coding structure consisting of a wide range of inner codes and an outer tree-based code. It is shown that this algorithmic enhancement has the potential to simultaneously improve error performance and decrease the computational complexity of the decoder. This enhanced decoding algorithm is applied to two existing URA algorithms, and the performance benefits of the algorithm are characterized. Findings are supported by numerical simulations.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 674
Author(s):  
Francesco Rundo ◽  
Ilaria Anfuso ◽  
Maria Grazia Amore ◽  
Alessandro Ortis ◽  
Angelo Messina ◽  
...  

From a biological point of view, alcohol human attentional impairment occurs before reaching a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC index) of 0.08% (0.05% under the Italian legislation), thus generating a significant impact on driving safety if the drinker subject is driving a car. Car drivers must keep a safe driving dynamic, having an unaltered physiological status while processing the surrounding information coming from the driving scenario (e.g., traffic signs, other vehicles and pedestrians). Specifically, the identification and tracking of pedestrians in the driving scene is a widely investigated problem in the scientific community. The authors propose a full, deep pipeline for the identification, monitoring and tracking of the salient pedestrians, combined with an intelligent electronic alcohol sensing system to properly assess the physiological status of the driver. More in detail, the authors propose an intelligent sensing system that makes a common air quality sensor selective to alcohol. A downstream Deep 1D Temporal Residual Convolutional Neural Network architecture will be able to learn specific embedded alcohol-dynamic features in the collected sensing data coming from the GHT25S air-quality sensor of STMicroelectronics. A parallel deep attention-augmented architecture identifies and tracks the salient pedestrians in the driving scenario. A risk assessment system evaluates the sobriety of the driver in case of the presence of salient pedestrians in the driving scene. The collected preliminary results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 669
Author(s):  
Irfan Ullah Khan ◽  
Nida Aslam ◽  
Talha Anwar ◽  
Hind S. Alsaif ◽  
Sara Mhd. Bachar Chrouf ◽  
...  

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is disrupting the entire world; its rapid global spread threatens to affect millions of people. Accurate and timely diagnosis of COVID-19 is essential to control the spread and alleviate risk. Due to the promising results achieved by integrating machine learning (ML), particularly deep learning (DL), in automating the multiple disease diagnosis process. In the current study, a model based on deep learning was proposed for the automated diagnosis of COVID-19 using chest X-ray images (CXR) and clinical data of the patient. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of integrating clinical patient data with the CXR for automated COVID-19 diagnosis. The proposed model used data collected from King Fahad University Hospital, Dammam, KSA, which consists of 270 patient records. The experiments were carried out first with clinical data, second with the CXR, and finally with clinical data and CXR. The fusion technique was used to combine the clinical features and features extracted from images. The study found that integrating clinical data with the CXR improves diagnostic accuracy. Using the clinical data and the CXR, the model achieved an accuracy of 0.970, a recall of 0.986, a precision of 0.978, and an F-score of 0.982. Further validation was performed by comparing the performance of the proposed system with the diagnosis of an expert. Additionally, the results have shown that the proposed system can be used as a tool that can help the doctors in COVID-19 diagnosis.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 677
Author(s):  
Jian Chen ◽  
Jiuxu Wang ◽  
Xin Li ◽  
Jin Chen ◽  
Feilong Yu ◽  
...  

Benefiting from the inherent capacity for detecting longer wavelengths inaccessible to human eyes, infrared photodetectors have found numerous applications in both military and daily life, such as individual combat weapons, automatic driving sensors and night-vision devices. However, the imperfect material growth and incomplete device manufacturing impose an inevitable restriction on the further improvement of infrared photodetectors. The advent of artificial microstructures, especially metasurfaces, featuring with strong light field enhancement and multifunctional properties in manipulating the light–matter interactions on subwavelength scale, have promised great potential in overcoming the bottlenecks faced by conventional infrared detectors. Additionally, metasurfaces exhibit versatile and flexible integration with existing detection semiconductors. In this paper, we start with a review of conventionally bulky and recently emerging two-dimensional material-based infrared photodetectors, i.e., InGaAs, HgCdTe, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus devices. As to the challenges the detectors are facing, we further discuss the recent progress on the metasurfaces integrated on the photodetectors and demonstrate their role in improving device performance. All information provided in this paper aims to open a new way to boost high-performance infrared photodetectors.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 678
Author(s):  
Patryk Chaber ◽  
Paweł D. Domański ◽  
Daniel Dąbrowski ◽  
Maciej Ławryńczuk ◽  
Robert Nebeluk ◽  
...  

The digital twins technology delivers a new degree of freedom into system implementation and maintenance practice. Using this approach, a technological system can be efficiently modeled and simulated. Furthermore, such a twin offline system can be efficiently used to investigate real system issues and improvement opportunities, e.g., improvement of the existing control system or development of a new one. This work describes the development of a control system using the digital twins methodology for a gas system delivering a specific mixture of gases to the time-of-flight (ToF) multipurpose detector (MPD) used during high-energy physics experiments in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). The gas system digital twin was built using a test stand and further extended into target full-scale installation planned to be built in the near future. Therefore, conducted simulations are used to validate the existing system and to allow validation of the planned new system. Moreover, the gas system digital twin enables testing of new control opportunities, improving the operation of the target gas system.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 667
Author(s):  
Ahmed Saad Elkorany ◽  
Alyaa Nehru Mousa ◽  
Sarosh Ahmad ◽  
Demyana Adel Saleeb ◽  
Adnan Ghaffar ◽  
...  

Antennas in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are characterized by the enhanced capacity of the network, longer range of transmission, better spatial reuse, and lower interference. In this paper, we propose a planar patch antenna for mobile communication applications operating at 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz. A planar microstrip patch antenna (MPA) consists of two F-shaped resonators that enable operations at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz while operation at 5.4 GHz is achieved when the patch is truncated from the middle. The proposed planar patch is printed on a low-cost FR-4 substrate that is 1.6 mm in thickness. The equivalent circuit model is also designed to validate the reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna with the S11 obtained from the circuit model. It contains three RLC (resistor–inductor–capacitor) circuits for generating three frequency bands for the proposed antenna. Thereby, we obtained a good agreement between simulation and measurement results. The proposed antenna has an elliptically shaped radiation pattern at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz, while the broadside directional pattern is obtained at the 5.4 GHz frequency band. At 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz, the simulated peak realized gains of 2.34, 5.2, and 1.42 dB are obtained and compared to the experimental peak realized gains of 2.22, 5.18, and 1.38 dB at same frequencies. The results indicate that the proposed planar patch antenna can be utilized for mobile applications such as digital communication systems (DCS), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), and wireless local area networks (WLAN).


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 679
Author(s):  
Johannes Rossouw van der van der Merwe ◽  
Fabio Garzia ◽  
Alexander Rügamer ◽  
Santiago Urquijo ◽  
David Contreras Franco ◽  
...  

The performance of GNSS receivers is significantly affected by interference signals. For this reason, several research groups have proposed methods to mitigate the effect of different kinds of jammers. One effective method for wide-band IM is the HDDM PB. It provides good performance to pulsed and frequency sparse interference. However, it and many other methods have poor performance against wide-band noise signals, which are not frequency-sparse. This article proposes to include AGC in the HDDM structure to attenuate the signal instead of removing it: the HDDM-AGC. It overcomes the wide-band noise limitation for IM at the cost of limiting mitigation capability to other signals. Previous studies with this approach were limited to only measuring the CN0 performance of tracking, but this article extends the analysis to include the impact of the HDDM-AGC algorithm on the PVT solution. It allows an end-to-end evaluation and impact assessment of mitigation to a GNSS receiver. This study compares two commercial receivers: one high-end and one low-cost, with and without HDDM IM against laboratory-generated interference signals. The results show that the HDDM-AGC provides a PVT availability and precision comparable to high-end commercial receivers with integrated mitigation for most interference types. For pulse interferences, its performance is superior. Further, it is shown that degradation is minimized against wide-band noise interferences. Regarding low-cost receivers, the PVT availability can be increased up to 40% by applying an external HDDM-AGC.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 673
Author(s):  
Yaxiang Zeng ◽  
Remco Sanders ◽  
Remco J. Wiegerink ◽  
Joost C. Lötters

A micro-Coriolis mass flow sensor is a resonating device that measures small mass flows of fluid. A large vibration amplitude is desired as the Coriolis forces due to mass flow and, accordingly, the signal-to-noise ratio, are directly proportional to the vibration amplitude. Therefore, it is important to maximize the quality factor Q so that a large vibration amplitude can be achieved without requiring high actuation voltages and high power consumption. This paper presents an investigation of the Q factor of different devices in different resonant modes. Q factors were measured both at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions. In the atmospheric environment, the Q factor increases when the resonance frequency increases. When reducing the pressure from 1 to 0.1 , the Q factor almost doubles. At even lower pressures, the Q factor is inversely proportional to the pressure until intrinsic effects start to dominate, resulting in a maximum Q factor of approximately 7200.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 670
Author(s):  
Benjamin Steven Vien ◽  
Wing Kong Chiu ◽  
Matthias Russ ◽  
Mark Fitzgerald

Reliable and quantitative assessments of bone quality and fracture healing prompt well-optimised patient healthcare management and earlier surgical intervention prior to complications of nonunion and malunion. This study presents a clinical investigation on modal frequencies associations with musculoskeletal components of human legs by using a prototype device based on a vibration analysis method. The findings indicated that the first out-of-plane and coupled modes in the frequency range from 60 to 110 Hz are associated with the femur length, suggesting these modes are suitable quantitative measures for bone evaluation. Furthermore, higher-order modes are shown to be associated with the muscle and fat mass of the leg. In addition, mathematical models are formulated via a stepwise regression approach to determine the modal frequencies using the measured leg components as variables. The optimal models of the first modes consist of only femur length as the independent variable and explain approximately 43% of the variation of the modal frequencies. The subsequent findings provide insights for further development on utilising vibration-based methods for practical bone and fracture healing monitoring.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 671
Author(s):  
Daoguang Yang ◽  
Hamid Reza Karimi ◽  
Len Gelman

Some artificial intelligence algorithms have gained much attention in the rotating machinery fault diagnosis due to their robust nonlinear regression properties. In addition, existing deep learning algorithms are usually dependent on single signal features, which would lead to the loss of some information or incomplete use of the information in the signal. To address this problem, three kinds of popular signal processing methods, including Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and directly slicing one-dimensional data into the two-dimensional matrix, are used to create four different datasets from raw vibration signal as the input data of four enhancement Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) models. Then, a fuzzy fusion strategy is used to fuse the output of four CNN models that could analyze the importance of each classifier and explore the interaction index between each classifier, which is different from conventional fusion strategies. To show the performance of the proposed model, an artificial fault bearing dataset and a real-world bearing dataset are used to test the feature extraction capability of the model. The good anti-noise and interpretation characteristics of the proposed method are demonstrated as well.


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