Semiconductor lasers can exhibit complex dynamical behavior in the presence of external perturbations. Delayed optical feedback, re-injecting part of the emitted light back into the laser cavity, in particular, can destabilize the laser’s emission. We focus on the emission properties of a semiconductor laser subject to such optical feedback, where the delay of the light re-injection is large compared to the relaxation oscillations period. We present an overview of the main dynamical features that emerge in semiconductor lasers subject to delayed optical feedback, emphasizing how to experimentally characterize these features using intensity and high-resolution optical spectra measurements. The characterization of the system requires the experimentalist to be able to simultaneously measure multiple time scales that can be up to six orders of magnitude apart, from the picosecond to the microsecond range. We highlight some experimental observations that are particularly interesting from the fundamental point of view and, moreover, provide opportunities for future photonic applications.
Laser exhibition technology has been widely used in the virtual environment of exhibitions and shows, as well as in the physical conference and exhibition centers. However, the speckle issue due to the high coherence of laser sources has caused harmful impacts on image quality, which is one of the obstacles to exhibition effects. In this paper, we design a compact Nd:YAG/PPMgLN laser module at 561.5 nm and use two different types of big-core multi-mode fibers to lower the spatial coherence. According to our experiment, the speckle contrasts relating to these two types reduce to 7.9% and 4.1%, respectively. The results of this paper contribute to improving the application effects of key optical components in the exhibitions. Only in this way can we provide technical supports and service guarantee for the development of the exhibition activities, and an immersive interactive experience for the audiences.
To increase the spectral efficiency of coherent communication systems, lasers with ever-narrower linewidths are required as they enable higher-order modulation formats with lower bit-error rates. In particular, semiconductor lasers are a key component due to their compactness, low power consumption, and potential for mass production. In field-testing scenarios their output is coupled to a fiber, making them susceptible to external optical feedback (EOF). This has a detrimental effect on its stability, thus it is traditionally countered by employing, for example, optical isolators and angled output waveguides. In this work, EOF is explored in a novel way with the aim to reduce and stabilize the laser linewidth. EOF has been traditionally studied in the case where it is applied to only one side of the laser cavity. In contrast, this work gives a generalization to the case of feedback on both sides. It is implemented using photonic components available via generic foundry platforms, thus creating a path towards devices with high technology-readiness level. Numerical results shows an improvement in performance of the double-feedback case with respect to the single-feedback case. In particularly, by appropriately selecting the phase of the feedback from both sides, a broad stability regime is discovered. This work paves the way towards low-cost, integrated and stable narrow-linewidth integrated lasers.
Proper features matter for salient object detection. Existing methods mainly focus on designing a sophisticated structure to incorporate multi-level features and filter out cluttered features. We present the dual-branch feature fusion network (DBFFNet), a simple effective framework mainly composed of three modules: global information perception module, local information concatenation module and refinement fusion module. The local information of a salient object is extracted from the local information concatenation module. The global information perception module exploits the U-Net structure to transmit the global information layer by layer. By employing the refinement fusion module, our approach is able to refine features from two branches and detect salient objects with final details without any post-processing. Experiments on standard benchmarks demonstrate that our method outperforms almost all of the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, and achieves the best performance in terms of speed under fair settings. Moreover, we design a wide-field optical system and combine with DBFFNet to achieve salient object detection with large field of view.
We demonstrate high sensitivity fiber refractive index (RI) sensor based on asymmetric supermode interferences in tapered four core fiber (TFCF). To make TFCF-based RI sensors, the whitelight was launched into any one of the cores to define the excitation orientation and is called a vertex-core excitation scheme. When the four-core fiber (FCF) was gradually tapered, the four cores gathered closer and closer. Originally, the power coupling occurred between its two neighboring cores first and these three cores are grouped to produce supermodes. Subsequently, the fourth diagonal core enters the evanescent field overlapping region to excite asymmetric supermodes interferences. The output spectral responses of the two cores next to the excitation core are mutually in phase whereas the spectral responses of the diagonal core are in phase and out of phase to that of the excitation core at the shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively. Due to the lowest limitation of the available refractive index of liquids, the best sensitivity can be achieved when the tapered diameter is 10 μm and the best RI sensitivity S is 3249 nm/RIU over the indices ranging from 1.41–1.42. This is several times higher than that at other RI ranges due to the asymmetric supermodes.
Combining the specific advantages of high-resolution liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs) and reflective or refractive micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) presents new prospects for the generation of structured light fields. In particular, adaptive self-apodization schemes can significantly reduce diffraction by low-loss spatial filtering. The concept enables one to realize low-dispersion shaping of nondiffracting femtosecond wavepackets and to temporally switch, modulate or deflect spatially structured beams. Adaptive diffraction management by structured illumination is demonstrated for piezo-based and thermally actuated axicons, spiral phase plates (SPPs) and Fresnel bi-mirrors. Improved non-collinear autocorrelation with angular-tunable Fresnel-bi-mirrors via self-apodized illumination and phase contrast of an SLM is proposed. An extension of the recently introduced nondiffractive Talbot effect to a tunable configuration by combining an SLM and a fluid lens is reported. Experimental results for hexagonal as well as orthogonal array beams are presented.
Vector beams (VBs) have spatially inhomogeneous polarization states distribution and have been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we proposed a method to modulate polarization states of higher-order Poincaré (HOP) beams and designed a system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in which polarization state (include azimuth and ellipticity) of generated HOP beams were modulated by linear electro-optic (EO) effect of nonlinear optical crystals. Using this method, the polarization state of generated HOP beams could be controlled by voltage signal applied on EO crystals, which makes the process of the polarization state change with no optical element moving and mechanical vibrations. Besides, due to the flexibility of the voltage signal, the polarization state could be switched directly and immediately.
The article below presents a review of current research on silicon photonics. Herein, an overview of current silicon modulator types and modern integration approaches is presented including direct bonding methods and micro-transfer printing. An analysis of current state of the art silicon modulators is also given. Finally, new prospects for III–V-silicon integration are explored and the prospects of an integrated modulator compatible with current CMOS processing is investigated.
Background: Optical components with high damage thresholds are very desirable in intense-light systems. Metalenses, being composed of phase-control nanostructures with peculiar properties, are one of the important component candidates in future optical systems. However, the optothermal mechanism in metalenses is still not investigated adequately. Methods: In this study, the optothermal absorption in transmissive metalenses made of silicon nanobricks and nanoholes is investigated comparatively to address this issue. Results: The geometrical dependencies of nanostructures’ transmittance, phase difference, and field distribution are calculated numerically via simulations. To demonstrate the optothermal mechanism in metalenses, the mean absorption efficiencies of the selected unit-cells, which would constitute metalenses, are analyzed. The results show that the electric field in the silicon zone would lead to an obvious thermal effect, and the enhancement of the localized electric field also results in the strong absorption of optical energy. Then, two typical metalenses are designed based on these nanobricks and nanoholes. The optothermal simulations show that the nanobrick-based metalens can handle a power density of 0.15 W/µm2, and the density of the nanohole-based design is 0.12 W/µm2. Conclusions: The study analyzes and compares the optothermal absorption in nanobricks and nanoholes, which shows that the electric-field distribution in absorbent materials and the localized-field enhancement are the two key effects that lead to optothermal absorption. This study provides an approach to improve the anti-damage potentials of transmissive metalenses for intense-light systems.
A highly sensitive non-complex cored photonic crystal fiber sensor for hazardous chemical sensing with water, ethanol, and benzene analytes has been proposed and is numerically analyzed using a full-vector finite element method. The proposed fiber consists of a hexagonal core hole and two cladding air hole rings, operating in the lower operating wavelength of 0.8 to 2.6 µm. It has been shown that the structure has high relative sensitivity of 94.47% for water, 96.32% for ethanol and 99.63% for benzene, and low confinement losses of 7.31 × 10−9 dB/m for water, 3.70 × 10−10 dB/m ethanol and 1.76 × 10−13 dB/m benzene. It also displays a high power fraction and almost flattened chromatic dispersion. The results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed fiber design for chemical sensing applications.