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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 138-159
Author(s):  
Ineta Zykiene ◽  
Rūta Laučienė ◽  
Rasa Daugėlienė ◽  
Aistė Leskauskienė

The article analyses the strengthening of the competitiveness of countries based on crossborder cooperation through the prism of international trade indicators. Due to the increase in international competition, countries, especially small economies, are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain their position in the global market and remain competitive if this position is pursued individually. It is therefore necessary to review competition strategies and reassess opportunities and competitive advantages, as well as to promote coopetition between border region companies at institutional level. The article presents a new approach to regional competitiveness, which is achieved not through the development of the competitive advantages of the regions of individual countries, but through their cooperation and thus achieving common benefits. This is particularly relevant for border regions, as their uniqueness allows them to exploit cross-border region cooperation, which can generate added value by utilising the potential of cooperating regions to complement each other and become a competitive hub for economic growth. Only a strategic partnership based on regional cooperation will promote cooperation between manufacturers in different regions and ensure the achievement of co-creation and international development goals. The article analyses the case of Lithuania and Latvia as an example of cross-border cooperation, as internationally these countries are often matched and treated as one region, but in fact they compete fiercely with each other for better positions in foreign markets. This also shows that Lithuania’s and Latvia’s foreign trade with the European Union (hereinafter - the EU) accounted for the largest share of their foreign trade. Secondary statistical data of the EU-28 Eurostat of 2010 - 2019 and Finger Kreinin, RCA, and Lafay indices were used for the study. After assessing the convergence of the Lithuanian and Latvian export structure according to the FKI index during the study and finding that the export structure of these countries is very similar, the relative comparative advantage of exports by individual product sectors was assessed on the basis of the RCA index and the comparative advantage on the basis of the LAFAY index. The study showed that both countries had comparative advantages in the same product groups. The identification of common points of contact has highlighted economic activities, the development of which could be given more attention through the cooperation between the countries, and which would ensure overall economic benefits. The article concludes with strategic recommendations and measures to promote cross-border cooperation and increase the region’s competitiveness. The article contributes to the regional economic subject literature, as the concept of cross-border region competitiveness is developed by promoting not the competition of individual regions, but their cooperation by discovering common similarities in economic development. The article presents methodological logic and empirical calculations that would allow policy makers to develop cooperation strategies with those border regions with which it is expedient to cooperate for greater economic benefits. Promoting regional development and reducing regional disparities not only between regions within the same country but also between different countries requires the patient and consistent work of governments, businesses and academia, as well as individual communities, to develop measures and initiatives to promote cross-border cooperation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Huang

This paper focuses on Internet intermediaries’ civil liabilities for contents produced by third parties. By comparing Chinese law with the laws of the US and EU, it argues that the US law grants broad civil immunity to Internet intermediaries, and the EU and China restrict civil immunity to intermediaries but in different ways. This is on account of how, in the US, Internet intermediaries enjoy civil immunity as long as they do not become content providers. In the EU, aside from mere conduit intermediaries, all other intermediaries are subject to the notice-and-take-down mechanism before enjoying civil immunity. In contrast, in China, even after an intermediary properly follows the notice-and-take-down mechanism, it may still be subject to civil liability under Chinese Consumer Law. Further, this paper argues that the policy priority for the law for Internet intermediaries varies fundamentally in the three jurisdictions. The US law for intermediaries’ liability focuses on protecting freedom of speech. The EU emphasises the protection of personal information as a fundamental human right. Contrastingly, Chinese policy priority is unclear. Consumer protection has boomed in public popularity and increasingly attracted the attentions of the legislature and judiciary in China. However, it is doubtable that the protection of consumers can provide a prevailing policy support for Chinese law in the same way that freedom of speech and the protection of personal information does under the laws of the US and EU, respectively.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Huang

The recent COVID-19 outbreak has pushed the tension of protecting personal data in a transnational context to an apex. Using a real case where the personal data of an international traveller was illegally released by Chinese media, the paper identifies that three trends have emerged at the each stage of conflict-of-laws analysis for lex causae: (1) the EU, the US, and China characterize the right to personal data differently, (2) the spread-out unilateral applicable law approach comes from the fact that all three jurisdictions either consider the law for personal data protection as a mandatory law or adopt connecting factors leading to the law of the forum, and (3) the EU and China strongly advocate de-Americanisation of substantive data protection laws. The trends and their dynamics provide valuable implications for developing the choice of laws for transnational personal data. First, this finding informs parties that jurisdiction is a predominant issue in data breach cases because courts and regulators would apply the forum law. Second, currently there is no international treaty or model law on choice-of-law issues for transnational personal data. International harmonization efforts will be a long and difficult journey considering how the trends demonstrate not only the states’ irreconcilable interests, but also how states may consider these interests as their fundamental values that they do not want to trade off. Therefore, for states and international organisations, a feasible priority is to achieve regional coordination or interoperation among states with similar values on personal data protection.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 78-94
Author(s):  
Giorgio Oikonomou

The purpose of this study is to explore the evolution of EU administration by focusing and critically examining the role of EU agencies in advancing the European integration project. The research question deals with identifying the factors that account for the formulation of EU agencies and the reasons behind their sharp increase in numbers since the 2000s. The tasks are to analyse critical EU agencies’ parameters such as their typology, the policy area they deal with, origin of their resources and funding, and their output. In addition, transparency and accountability issues accompanying the proliferation of EU agencies are also considered. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the European administration as expressed by the establishment of various types of agencies since 1975 thereafter. Methodologically, the research utilizes quantitative data based on annual EU budgets as well as official reports and policy papers issued by main EU institutions (European Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Auditors) and agencies, analyzing them from a historical perspective. As a result, it is argued that the proliferation of EU agencies has advanced the process of European integration, namely the EU enlargement and expansion in new policy areas following successive reforms of the Treaties. However, concerns regarding accountability and transparency issues remain in place.


Author(s):  
M. R. Saliya

The article discusses the issue of legal regulation of the digital currency of central banks. The experience of international organizations, as well as the fi rst steps in this direction from China, represented by the People’s Bank of China and the European Union, represented by the European Central Bank, are examined.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Igor Luksic ◽  
Bojana Boskovic ◽  
Aleksandra Novikova ◽  
Rastislav Vrbensky

Abstract Background: This paper is related to the current stage of the development in the Western Balkans. Despite becoming a growing instrument to finance sustainable development green, debt swaps and social or sustainability bonds are a relative novelty in this region. At the same time the development needs are huge, especially in the light of the Covid-19 aftermath. Results: We have analyzed the public debt position in the Western Balkans countries which points to the deteriorated new debt accumulation perspective especially in the light of the growing public debt over the past decade. Our research suggests that the ESG/Sustainability-linked bonds and debt-for-climate swaps as innovative financial instruments seem to be promising to leverage additional finance into sustainability goals in the Western Balkans Six given their need on the EU track and their economic and structural challenges. After briefly discussing the methodological approach, we discuss the history and features of green bonds and debt-for-nature swaps and their diverse underlying mechanisms. Then we derive recommendations for policymakers in designing future green bonds and debt-for-nature swaps and apply these to national circumstances in the Western Balkans Six. Conclusions: The related countries need to explore more innovative approaches to finance sustainable societies. In the close cooperation with the EU and related to the European Green Deal countries of the Western Balkans six should feel motivated to design financing mechanisms that will bring in the more transparency into the different policies and the more accountability for their implementation. The EU should stand ready to use its cohesive and pre-accession funds to support such market mechanisms, which can bring the cooperation to the next level. Applying the recommended modality may help keep the problem of the public debt be kept at bay while additional funds may support implementation of thestructural reforms.


Author(s):  
Emilie Ghio ◽  
Gert‐Jan Boon ◽  
David Ehmke ◽  
Jennifer Gant ◽  
Line Langkjaer ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Eugenio Mattei ◽  
Federica Censi ◽  
Giovanni Calcagnini ◽  
Rosaria Falsaperla

Workers with cardiac active implantable medical devices (AIMD), such as a pacemaker (PM) or an implantable defibrillator (ICD), are considered by the occupational health and safety regulation framework as a particularly sensitive risk group that must be protected against the dangers caused by the interference of electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper, we first describe the general methodology that shall be followed for the risk assessment of employees with a cardiac AIMD exposed to EMF, according to the EU regulation, and in particular to the EN 50527-2-1:2016 and 50527-2-2:2018 standards. Then, three case studies related to specific EMF sources are presented, to better describe how the initial analysis of the risk assessment can be performed in practice, and to understand if a further specific risk assessment analysis is required or not.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10327
Author(s):  
Anca Mehedintu ◽  
Georgeta Soava ◽  
Mihaela Sterpu ◽  
Eugenia Grecu

This article is part of the concerns generated by the need to increase the consumption of renewable energy, so that in the European Union (EU) countries, its share in the final energy consumption, to reach 32% by 2030, increases. In the context in which, in the specialized literature, the analysis of renewable energy consumption by activity sectors is approached very little, such an analysis has high utility. The variables of interest are the share of renewable energy in the final energy consumption, and the share of renewable energy sources in the final energy consumption in transport, electricity, and heating and cooling. The study performs a comparative analysis of the evolution of these indicators for the period 2004–2019 for Romania and the EU, an empirical estimate of the evolution of indicators using time regression and autoregressive models, a forecast of the share of renewable energy consumption in the final energy consumption and by the main sectors (transport, electricity, and heating and cooling) for the 2030 horizon, providing appropriate scenarios for achieving the EU established goals, as well as an analysis of the interdependence between the indicators. Through the results obtained, the paper can contribute to improving the framework for the sustainable development of energy consumption.


2021 ◽  
Vol 132 ◽  
pp. 102596
Author(s):  
Michael Köhl ◽  
Stefanie Linser ◽  
Kit Prins ◽  
Andrzej Talarczyk
Keyword(s):  

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