The global pharmaceutical market is one of the most innovative and dynamically developing sectors of the global economy. In addition, this industry can be considered highly profitable. Its role has especially increased in the context during the coronavirus pandemic. This article examines trade relations between Russia and Hungary in the pharmaceutical sector. For the Hungarian economy, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the traditional and most innovative sectors of the economy: about 86% of the manufactured products are exported. Hungary is among the top 20 largest exporting and importing countries of pharmaceutical products. The main partners of Hungary are the EU countries. Russia remains an important partner of Hungary in the export of pharmaceutical products, however, it we should note the downward trend of the Russian share in Hungarian exports, due to the sanctions policy on the part of the EU. After the imposition of sanctions in 2014, the growth rate of the Russian pharmaceutical market slowed down, which also negatively affected the volume of trade cooperation with European partners. Russia has traditionally been a major importer in the global pharmaceutical market. An important problem is the reduction of drug import dependence and the expansion of exports. For Russia, this will be possible thanks to the development of unique innovative products. Hungary is an attractive country for the development and expansion of Russia's trade relations in the global pharmaceutical market. For both countries, the pharmaceutical industry is strategically important. The situation with the coronavirus pandemic has shown that political differences can be leveled. Hungary became the first European country to conclude a contract with Russia for the supply of Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. Thus, there is a high economic potential to make up for the lost pharmaceutical relationship between the two countries.