The Brexit referendum has impacted both the UK and the EU economies in several ways. The uncertainty around Brexit highlighted the importance of a relationships network between directors of companies to access information and resources that are necessary for optimal decision making. It is difficult to develop informed business and economy policies without a deep understanding of the magnitude of Brexit on business-to-business relationships with EU-based firms. This study aims to analyze the impact of the passage of the Brexit referendum on the evolution of board interlock networks. The study uses network analysis to measure the evolution of UK-EU directors’ relationships over the Brexit period, predominantly between the 2010 and 2020 period. The study models the structural changes in dynamic networks by converting this evolving network into static graphs on yearly basis. The analysis indicates that links formation in the UK is affected negatively by the Brexit referendum. It also has a negative impact on forming a new link with potential companies’ directors in the EU, but it shows a rising tendency for shared affiliation bias analysis. Interestingly, the contradicted trend in 2007, the number of directors’ connection in consumer service and food & drug sectors was decreasing in the UK while rocketing in the EU. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-01-01 Full Text: PDF
The global pharmaceutical market is one of the most innovative and dynamically developing sectors of the global economy. In addition, this industry can be considered highly profitable. Its role has especially increased in the context during the coronavirus pandemic. This article examines trade relations between Russia and Hungary in the pharmaceutical sector. For the Hungarian economy, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the traditional and most innovative sectors of the economy: about 86% of the manufactured products are exported. Hungary is among the top 20 largest exporting and importing countries of pharmaceutical products. The main partners of Hungary are the EU countries. Russia remains an important partner of Hungary in the export of pharmaceutical products, however, it we should note the downward trend of the Russian share in Hungarian exports, due to the sanctions policy on the part of the EU. After the imposition of sanctions in 2014, the growth rate of the Russian pharmaceutical market slowed down, which also negatively affected the volume of trade cooperation with European partners. Russia has traditionally been a major importer in the global pharmaceutical market. An important problem is the reduction of drug import dependence and the expansion of exports. For Russia, this will be possible thanks to the development of unique innovative products. Hungary is an attractive country for the development and expansion of Russia's trade relations in the global pharmaceutical market. For both countries, the pharmaceutical industry is strategically important. The situation with the coronavirus pandemic has shown that political differences can be leveled. Hungary became the first European country to conclude a contract with Russia for the supply of Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. Thus, there is a high economic potential to make up for the lost pharmaceutical relationship between the two countries.
The monitoring of water quality in the EU is described in detail and regulated by Directives of the European Commission and the Parliament, which underlines the importance of the quality of water (both potable and non-potable). Analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in water, including metals, still presents challenges to demonstrate the quality and comparability of results. The article provides a detailed overview of the procedures that laboratories can use to assess the reliability of the results obtained by a particular measurement procedure. Emphasis is placed on three basic pillars: metrological traceability, validation and measurement uncertainty. Subsequently continuous evaluation is carried out using internal and external quality management measures. Regional aspects specific for the Czech Republic are also mentioned.