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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Lili Wang ◽  
Chenghan Huang ◽  
Ying Lu ◽  
Weicheng Ma ◽  
Ruibo Liu ◽  

Complex user behavior, especially in settings such as social media, can be organized as time-evolving networks. Through network embedding, we can extract general-purpose vector representations of these dynamic networks which allow us to analyze them without extensive feature engineering. Prior work has shown how to generate network embeddings while preserving the structural role proximity of nodes. These methods, however, cannot capture the temporal evolution of the structural identity of the nodes in dynamic networks. Other works, on the other hand, have focused on learning microscopic dynamic embeddings. Though these methods can learn node representations over dynamic networks, these representations capture the local context of nodes and do not learn the structural roles of nodes. In this article, we propose a novel method for learning structural node embeddings in discrete-time dynamic networks. Our method, called HR2vec , tracks historical topology information in dynamic networks to learn dynamic structural role embeddings. Through experiments on synthetic and real-world temporal datasets, we show that our method outperforms other well-known methods in tasks where structural equivalence and historical information both play important roles. HR2vec can be used to model dynamic user behavior in any networked setting where users can be represented as nodes. Additionally, we propose a novel method (called network fingerprinting) that uses HR2vec embeddings for modeling whole (or partial) time-evolving networks. We showcase our network fingerprinting method on synthetic and real-world networks. Specifically, we demonstrate how our method can be used for detecting foreign-backed information operations on Twitter.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ashley Hagaman ◽  
Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez ◽  
Clare Barrington ◽  
Kavita Singh ◽  
Abiy Seifu Estifanos ◽  

Abstract Background Globally, amidst increased utilization of facility-based maternal care services, there is continued need to better understand women’s experience of care in places of birth. Quantitative surveys may not sufficiently characterize satisfaction with maternal healthcare (MHC) in local context, limiting their interpretation and applicability. The purpose of this study is to untangle how contextual and cultural expectations shape women’s care experience and what women mean by satisfaction in two Ethiopian regions. Methods Health center and hospital childbirth care registries were used to identify and interview 41 women who had delivered a live newborn within a six-month period. We used a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Donabedian framework to elicit women’s experiences with MHC and delivery, any prior delivery experiences, and recommendations to improve MHC. We used an inductive analytical approach to compare and contrast MHC processes, experiences, and satisfaction. Results Maternal and newborn survival and safety were central to women’s descriptions of their MHC experiences. Women nearly exclusively described healthy and safe deliveries with healthy outcomes as ‘satisfactory’. The texture behind this ‘satisfaction’, however, was shaped by what mothers bring to their delivery experiences, creating expectations from events including past births, experiences with antenatal care, and social and community influences. Secondary to the absence of adverse outcomes, health provider’s interpersonal behaviors (e.g., supportive communication and behavioral demonstrations of commitment to their births) and the facility’s amenities (e.g., bathing, cleaning, water, coffee, etc) enhanced women’s experiences. Finally, at the social and community levels, we found that family support and material resources may significantly buffer against negative experiences and facilitate women’s overall satisfaction, even in the context of poor-quality facilities and limited resources. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of understanding contextual factors including past experiences, expectations, and social support that influence perceived quality of MHC and the agency a woman has to negotiate her care experience. Our finding that newborn and maternal survival primarily drove women’s satisfaction suggests that quantitative assessments conducted shortly following delivery may be overly influenced by these outcomes and not fully capture the complexity of women’s care experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Emily J. Rugel ◽  
Clara K. Chow ◽  
Daniel J. Corsi ◽  
Perry Hystad ◽  
Sumathy Rangarajan ◽  

Abstract Background By 2050, the global population of adults 60 + will reach 2.1 billion, surging fastest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In response, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed indicators of age-friendly urban environments, but these criteria have been challenging to apply in rural areas and LMIC. This study fills this gap by adapting the WHO indicators to such settings and assessing variation in their availability by community-level urbanness and country-level income. Methods We used data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study’s environmental-assessment tools, which integrated systematic social observation and ecometrics to reliably capture community-level environmental features associated with cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The results of a scoping review guided selection of 18 individual indicators across six distinct domains, with data available for 496 communities in 20 countries, including 382 communities (77%) in LMIC. Finally, we used both factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD) and multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approaches to describe relationships between indicators and domains, as well as detailing the extent to which these relationships held true within groups defined by urbanness and income. Results Together, the results of the FAMD and MTMM approaches indicated substantial variation in the relationship of individual indicators to each other and to broader domains, arguing against the development of an overall score and extending prior evidence demonstrating the need to adapt the WHO framework to the local context. Communities in high-income countries generally ranked higher across the set of indicators, but regular connections to neighbouring towns via bus (95%) and train access (76%) were most common in low-income countries. The greatest amount of variation by urbanness was seen in the number of streetscape-greenery elements (33 such elements in rural areas vs. 55 in urban), presence of traffic lights (18% vs. 67%), and home-internet availability (25% vs. 54%). Conclusions This study indicates the extent to which environmental supports for healthy ageing may be less readily available to older adults residing in rural areas and LMIC and augments calls to tailor WHO’s existing indicators to a broader range of communities in order to achieve a critical aspect of distributional equity in an ageing world.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Thomas Beaney ◽  
Jonathan M. Clarke ◽  
Emily Grundy ◽  
Sophie Coronini-Cronberg

Abstract Background NHS hospitals do not have clearly defined geographic populations to whom they provide care, with patients able to attend any hospital. Identifying a core population for a hospital trust, particularly those in urban areas where there are multiple providers and high population churn, is essential to understanding local key health needs especially given the move to integrated care systems. This can enable effective planning and delivery of preventive interventions and community engagement, rather than simply treating those presenting to services. In this article we describe a practical method for identifying a hospital’s catchment population based on where potential patients are most likely to reside, and describe that population’s size, demographic and social profile, and the key health needs. Methods A 30% proportional flow method was used to identify a catchment population using an acute hospital trust in West London as an example. Records of all hospital attendances between 1st April 2017 and 31st March 2018 were analysed using Hospital Episode Statistics. Any Lower Layer Super Output Areas where 30% or more of residents who attended any hospital for care did so at the example trust were assigned to the catchment area. Publicly available local and national datasets were then applied to identify and describe the population’s key health needs. Results A catchment comprising 617,709 people, of an equal gender-split (50.4% male) and predominantly working age (15 to 64 years) population was identified. Thirty nine point six percent of residents identified as being from Black and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups, a similar proportion that reported being born abroad, with over 85 languages spoken. Health indicators were estimated, including: a healthy life expectancy difference of over twenty years; bowel cancer screening coverage of 48.8%; chlamydia diagnosis rates of 2,136 per 100,000; prevalence of visible dental decay among five-year-olds of 27.9%. Conclusions We define a blueprint by which a catchment can be defined for a hospital trust and demonstrate the value a hospital-view of the local population could provide in understanding local health needs and enabling population-level health improvement interventions. While an individual approach allows tailoring to local context and need, there could be an efficiency saving were such public health information made routinely and regularly available for every NHS hospital.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 728
Nguyen Hoang-Tung ◽  
Hoang Thuy Linh ◽  
Hoang Van Cuong ◽  
Phan Le Binh ◽  
Shinichi Takeda ◽  

The ride-hailing service (RHS) has emerged as a major form of daily travel in many Southeast Asian cities where motorcycles are extensively used. This study aims to analyze the local context in motorcycle-based societies, which may affect the establishment of travelers’ choice set after the appearance of RHSs. In particular, it empirically compares three types of choice-set structures in the context of urban travel mode choice by estimating standard logit and nested logit models to test six hypotheses on the associations of RHS adoption with its determinants. Revealed preference data of 449 trips from both RHS users and non-RHS users were collected through a face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey in Hanoi, Vietnam, in December 2020. The results of model estimations revealed: (1) a substitutional effect for two-wheelers but not for four-wheelers, (2) a significant positive influence of car ownership on car RHS adoption but not on motorcycle RHS adoption, (3) significantly high sensitivity to travel time of motorcycle RHS but not of car RHS, (4) a significant negative effect of traffic congestion on car RHS adoption but an insignificant one on motorcycle RHS adoption, and (5) a significant positive association of an individual’s experience in using a smartphone with car RHSs but insignificant association with motorcycle RHSs. Our findings suggest that transportation policies of RHS motorcycles should be different from those of RHS cars because of the heterogeneity in travel behaviors of RHS users between them. They also indicate that the transition from motorcycles to cars as well as the difference in service availability among different types of RHSs should be incorporated into the development of transportation policies in Southeast Asian cities.

Helen Yue-Lai Chan ◽  
Cecilia Nim-Chee Chan ◽  
Chui-Wah Man ◽  
Alice Dik-Wah Chiu ◽  
Faith Chun-Fong Liu ◽  

Integrating the palliative care approach into care home service to address the complex care needs of older adults with frailty or advanced diseases has been increasingly recognized. However, such a service is underdeveloped in Hong Kong owing to socio-cultural and legal concerns. We adopted a modified Delphi study design to identify the key components for the delivery of palliative and end-of-life care in care home settings for the local context. It was an iterative staged method to assimilate views of experts in aged care, palliative care, and care home management. A multidisciplinary expert panel of 18 members consented to participate in the study. They rated their level of agreement with 61 candidate statements identified through a scoping review in two rounds of anonymous surveys. The steering group revised the statements in light of the survey findings. Eventually, the finalized list included 28 key statements concerning structure and process of care in seven domains, namely policy and infrastructure, education, assessment, symptom management, communication, care for dying patients, and family support. The findings of this study underscored concerns regarding the feasibility of statements devised at different levels of palliative care development. This list would be instrumental for regions where the development of palliative and end-of-life care services in care home setting is at an initial stage.

2022 ◽  
Usman Sani Dankoly ◽  
Dirk Vissers ◽  
Souad Ben El Mostafa ◽  
Abderrahim Ziyyat ◽  
Bart Van Rompaey ◽  

Abstract Background: In Morocco, the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is mainly focused on medication and only 2% of patients are coached towards a healthier lifestyle. In Oujda, Eastern Morocco the prevalence of T2D is 10.2%, and the current trend is alarming, especially for women. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore healthcare professionals' (HCP) views about the perceived barriers and benefits towards an integrated care approach in primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) to T2D management in Oujda.Methods: A descriptive study using focus groups in 8 PHCCs. This resulted in a sample of 5 doctors and 25 nurses caring for diabetes patients. The transcripts of all conversations were coded to allow for thematic analysis.Results: The participants mentioned different barriers to an integrated approach of DM management:: excessive workload; poor reimbursement policy; lack of staff and equipment; interrupted drug supply; poor working environment; limited referral; gap in the knowledge of general practitioners; health beliefs; poverty; advanced age; gender; the use of psychotropic drugs. An integrated approach could be facilitated by simplified electronic records and referral; uninterrupted free care; staff recruitment; continuous professional development; internships. Benefits: structured care; promotion of care in PHCCs; empowerment of self-management.Conclusion: HCP views reflect the urge to strengthen the management of T2D in PHCCs. There is a need for HCP with expertise in physical activity and nutrition to solve the current gap in the multidisciplinary integrated care approach. The specific local context can contribute to patients' reluctance to change their lifestyles and is a challenge to provide care in an efficient and sustainable manner. More research is needed to see how a patient-centered multidisciplinary approach to T2D management can help motivate patients in Morocco to change to a healthier lifestyle.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Erika L. Crable ◽  
Allyn Benintendi ◽  
David K. Jones ◽  
Alexander Y. Walley ◽  
Jacqueline Milton Hicks ◽  

Abstract Background Despite the important upstream impact policy has on population health outcomes, few studies in implementation science in health have examined implementation processes and strategies used to translate state and federal policies into accessible services in the community. This study examines the policy implementation strategies and experiences of Medicaid programs in three US states that responded to a federal prompt to improve access to evidence-based practice (EBP) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Methods Three US state Medicaid programs implementing American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) Criteria-driven SUD services under Section 1115 waiver authority were used as cases. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with Medicaid staff, providers and health systems partners in California, Virginia, and West Virginia. Interviews were triangulated with document review of state readiness and implementation plans. The Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment Framework (EPIS) guided qualitative theme analysis. The Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change and Specify It criteria were used to create a taxonomy of policy implementation strategies used by policymakers to promote providers’ uptake of statewide EBP SUD care continuums. Results Four themes describe states’ experiences and outcomes implementing a complex EBP SUD treatment policy directive: (1) Medicaid agencies adapted their inner/outer contexts to align with EBPs and adapted EBPs to fit their local context; (2) enhanced financial reimbursement arrangements were inadequate bridging factors to achieve statewide adoption of new SUD services; (3) despite trainings, service providers and managed care organizations demonstrated poor fidelity to the ASAM Criteria; and (4) successful policy adoption at the state level did not guarantee service providers’ uptake of EBPs. States used 29 implementation strategies to implement EBP SUD care continuums. Implementation strategies were used in the Exploration (n=6), Preparation (n=10), Implementation (n=19), and Sustainment (n=6) phases, and primarily focused on developing stakeholder interrelationships, evaluative and iterative approaches, and financing. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of statewide policy implementation outcomes in low-resource, public healthcare settings. Themes highlight the need for additional pre-implementation and sustainment focused implementation strategies. The taxonomy of detailed policy implementation strategies employed by policymakers across states should be tested in future policy implementation research.

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