drop impact
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262203
Michał Beczek ◽  
Magdalena Ryżak ◽  
Rafał Mazur ◽  
Agata Sochan ◽  
Cezary Polakowski ◽  

Soil splash is the first step in the process of water erosion, where impacting raindrops cause the detachment and transport of soil material. One of the factors that strongly influences the magnitude of soil splash is the incline of the surface (slope). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the slope on the course of the splash phenomenon caused by single-drop impact (one drop impact per soil sample), with respect to the mass and proportions of the ejected material, taking into account its division into solid and liquid phases i.e. soil and water. The investigation was carried out using three types of soil with different textures, in moistened (pressure head corresponding to -1.0 kPa) and air-dry (-1500 kPa) conditions. The soil samples were on three angles of slope, being 5°, 15°, and 30°, respectively. After a single-drop impact with a diameter of 4.2 mm, the ejected material was collected using a splash cup. The following quantities of splashed material were measured: the total mass, the mass of the solid phase, and the mass of the liquid phase. Additionally, the distribution and proportions (soil/water) of the splashed material were analysed in both the upslope and downslope directions. It was found that: (i) the change of slope had a variable influence on the measured quantities for different soils; (ii) in the case of moistened samples, the measured values were mainly influenced by the texture, while in the dry samples, by the angle of the slope; (iii) with the increase of slope, the splashed material was mostly ejected in the downslope direction (irrespective of moisture conditions); (iv) in the moistened samples, the ejected material consisted mostly of water, while in the dry samples it was soil—this occurred for material ejected both upslope and downslope. The obtained results are important for improving the physical description of the process of splash erosion. A more thorough understanding and better recognition of the mechanisms governing this phenomenon at all stages could contribute to the development of more effective methods for protecting soil against erosion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 012108
Rupak Kumar ◽  
Lokesh ◽  
Arup Kumar Das

Subhayan Halder ◽  
Rafael Granda ◽  
Jingwei Wu ◽  
Abhilash Sankaran ◽  
Vitaliy Yurkiv ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (12) ◽  
pp. 123317
Maximilian Pierzyna ◽  
David A. Burzynski ◽  
Stephan E. Bansmer ◽  
Richard Semaan

2021 ◽  
pp. 2101565
Xing Han ◽  
Xin Tang ◽  
Haibo Zhao ◽  
Jiaqian Li ◽  
Wei Li ◽  

Langmuir ◽  
2021 ◽  
Niladri Sekhar Satpathi ◽  
Lokesh Malik ◽  
Alwar Samy Ramasamy ◽  
Ashis Kumar Sen

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (11) ◽  
Victor Lherm ◽  
Renaud Deguen ◽  
Thierry Alboussière ◽  
Maylis Landeau

2021 ◽  
Vol 128 ◽  
pp. 110708
Brendan Hoffe ◽  
Ashley Mazurkiewicz ◽  
Hannah Thomson ◽  
Rohan Banton ◽  
Thuvan Piehler ◽  

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