oblivious transfer
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2022 ◽  
Vijay Kumar Yadav ◽  
Nitish Andola ◽  
Shekhar Verma ◽  
S Venkatesan

Oblivious transfer (OT) protocol is an essential tool in cryptography that provides a wide range of applications like secure multi-party computation, private information retrieval, private set intersection, contract signing, and privacy-preserving location-based services. The OT protocol has different variants such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. In the OT (one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , and OT extension) protocol, the sender has a set of messages, whereas the receiver has a key. The receiver sends that key to the sender in a secure way; the sender cannot get any information about the received key. The sender encrypts every message by operating on every message using the received key and sends all the encrypted messages to the receiver. The receiver is able to extract only the required message using his key. However, in the k -out-of- n OT protocol, the receiver sends a set of k keys to the sender, and in replay, the sender sends all the encrypted messages. The receiver uses his keys and extracts the required messages, but it cannot gain any information about the messages that it has not requested. Generally, the OT protocol requires high communication and computation cost if we transfer millions of oblivious messages. The OT extension protocol provides a solution for this, where the receiver transfers a set of keys to the sender by executing a few numbers of OT protocols. Then, the sender encrypts all the messages using cheap symmetric key cryptography with the help of a received set of keys and transfer millions of oblivious messages to the receiver. In this work, we present different variants of OT protocols such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. Furthermore, we cover various aspects of theoretical security guarantees such as semi-honest and malicious adversaries, universally composable, used techniques, computation, and communication efficiency aspects. From the analysis, we found that the semi-honest adversary-based OT protocols required low communication and computation costs as compared to malicious adversary-based OT protocols.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2100125
Ping Wang ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Guohao Jiang ◽  
Zhiwei Sun

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Hangchao Ding ◽  
Han Jiang ◽  
Qiuliang Xu

We propose postquantum universal composable (UC) cut-and-choose oblivious transfer (CCOT) protocol under the malicious adversary model. In secure two-party computation, we construct s copies’ garbled circuits, including half check circuit and half evaluation circuit. The sender can transfer the key to the receiver by CCOT protocol. Compared to PVW-OT [6] framework, we invoke WQ-OT [35] framework with reusability of common random string ( crs ) and better security. Relying on LWE’s assumption and the property of the Rounding function, we construct an UC-CCOT protocol, which can resist quantum attack in secure two-party computation.

Benoît Libert ◽  
San Ling ◽  
Fabrice Mouhartem ◽  
Khoa Nguyen ◽  
Huaxiong Wang

P. Branco ◽  
L. Fiolhais ◽  
M. Goulão ◽  
P. Martins ◽  
P. Mateus ◽  

Oblivious Transfer (OT) is a fundamental primitive in cryptography, supporting protocols such as Multi-Party Computation and Private Set Intersection (PSI), that are used in applications like contact discovery, remote diagnosis and contact tracing. Due to its fundamental nature, it is utterly important that its execution is secure even if arbitrarily composed with other instances of the same, or other protocols. This property can be guaranteed by proving its security under the Universal Composability model. Herein, a 3-round Random Oblivious Transfer (ROT) protocol is proposed, which achieves high computational efficiency, in the Random Oracle Model. The security of the protocol is based on the Ring Learning With Errors assumption (for which no quantum solver is known). ROT is the basis for OT extensions and, thus, achieves wide applicability, without the overhead of compiling ROTs from OTs. Finally, the protocol is implemented in a server-class Intel processor and four application-class ARM processors, all with different architectures. The usage of vector instructions provides on average a 40% speedup. The implementation shows that our proposal is at least one order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art, and is suitable for a wide range of applications in embedded systems, IoT, desktop, and servers. From a memory footprint perspective, there is a small increase (16%) when compared to the state-of-the-art. This increase is marginal and should not prevent the usage of the proposed protocol in a multitude of devices. In sum, the proposal achieves up to 37k ROTs/s in an Intel server-class processor and up to 5k ROTs/s in an ARM application-class processor. A PSI application, using the proposed ROT, is up to 6.6 times faster than related art.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (8) ◽  
pp. 1001
Bruno Costa ◽  
Pedro Branco ◽  
Manuel Goulão ◽  
Mariano Lemus ◽  
Paulo Mateus

Secure computation is a powerful cryptographic tool that encompasses the evaluation of any multivariate function with arbitrary inputs from mutually distrusting parties. The oblivious transfer primitive serves is a basic building block for the general task of secure multi-party computation. Therefore, analyzing the security in the universal composability framework becomes mandatory when dealing with multi-party computation protocols composed of oblivious transfer subroutines. Furthermore, since the required number of oblivious transfer instances scales with the size of the circuits, oblivious transfer remains as a bottleneck for large-scale multi-party computation implementations. Techniques that allow one to extend a small number of oblivious transfers into a larger one in an efficient way make use of the oblivious transfer variant called randomized oblivious transfer. In this work, we present randomized versions of two known oblivious transfer protocols, one quantum and another post-quantum with ring learning with an error assumption. We then prove their security in the quantum universal composability framework, in a common reference string model.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
Sai Sheshank Burra ◽  
Enrique Larraia ◽  
Jesper Buus Nielsen ◽  
Peter Sebastian Nordholt ◽  
Claudio Orlandi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Manuel B. Santos ◽  
Armando N. Pinto ◽  
Paulo Mateus

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