Symmetric Key
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

797
(FIVE YEARS 417)

H-INDEX

21
(FIVE YEARS 11)

Author(s):  
Kinjal Raut

Abstract: The internet has revolutionized advancements, it’s conveniences and uses come at the price of new perils. To be safe from being the victim of fraud, theft and other damage security and vigilance is critical. Cryptography plays an important role in securing information and communications using a set of rules, it ensures the integrity of our data. It maintains confidentiality by protecting the privacy of personal information stored in enterprise systems. Hence Encryption is the only way to ensure that your information remains secure while it is stored and being transmitted. Cryptographic Algorithms mathematically maintain the integrity, confidentiality and authenticity of sensitive information by preventing data disclosure, data tampering and repudiation. The three main types of cryptography are Symmetric Key Cryptography, Asymmetric Key Cryptography and Hash Functions. In this Paper, several important algorithms used for encryption and decryption are defined and analysed, the algorithms are DES, AES, ECC, RSA, MD5 Keywords: Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, AES, DES, ECC, RSA, Blowfish, MD5


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean Belo KLAMTI ◽  
Anwar Hasan

A key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) that takes as input an arbitrary string, i.e., a tag, is known as tag-KEM, while a scheme that combines signature and encryption is called signcryption. In this paper, we present a code-based signcryption tag-KEM scheme. We utilize a code-based signature and a CCA2 (adaptive chosen ciphertext attack) secure version of McEliece's {encryption} scheme. The proposed scheme uses an equivalent subcode as a public code for the receiver, making the NP-completeness of the equivalent subcode problem be one of our main security assumptions. We then base the signcryption tag-KEM to design a code-based hybrid signcryption scheme. A hybrid scheme deploys an asymmetric- as well as a symmetric-key encryption. We give security analyses of both our schemes in the standard model and prove that they are secure against IND-CCA2 (indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext attack) and SUF-CMA (strong existential unforgeability under chosen message attack).


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean Belo KLAMTI ◽  
Anwar Hasan

A key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) that takes as input an arbitrary string, i.e., a tag, is known as tag-KEM, while a scheme that combines signature and encryption is called signcryption. In this paper, we present a code-based signcryption tag-KEM scheme. We utilize a code-based signature and a CCA2 (adaptive chosen ciphertext attack) secure version of McEliece's {encryption} scheme. The proposed scheme uses an equivalent subcode as a public code for the receiver, making the NP-completeness of the equivalent subcode problem be one of our main security assumptions. We then base the signcryption tag-KEM to design a code-based hybrid signcryption scheme. A hybrid scheme deploys an asymmetric- as well as a symmetric-key encryption. We give security analyses of both our schemes in the standard model and prove that they are secure against IND-CCA2 (indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext attack) and SUF-CMA (strong existential unforgeability under chosen message attack).


2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 585-590
Author(s):  
Ratnakumari Challa ◽  
VijayaKumari Gunta

Homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes became popular cryptographic primitives and very useful in variety of security applications. Homomorphic encryption based on coding theory have the advantages of faster computations due to the structural properties of the codes used. Several schemes are supporting unlimited Mod2 addition operations in literature. The present paper introduces Reed-Muller (RM) code based Mod2 multiplication operation thereby making RM code based HE scheme fully homomorphic. The representation of the codeword with necessary adaption to support unlimited number of Mod2​ multiplication operations is presented along with the scheme first. The correctness proof of the homomorphic operations along with experimental evaluation is also presented to demonstrate the practical aspects of the proposal.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8347
Author(s):  
Thanikodi Manoj Kumar ◽  
Kavitha Rani Balmuri ◽  
Adam Marchewka ◽  
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari ◽  
Srinivas Konda

Nowadays, a large number of digital data are transmitted worldwide using wireless communications. Therefore, data security is a significant task in communication to prevent cybercrimes and avoid information loss. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a highly efficient secure mechanism that outperforms other symmetric key cryptographic algorithms using message secrecy. However, AES is efficient in terms of software and hardware implementation, and numerous modifications are done in the conventional AES architecture to improve the performance. This research article proposes a significant modification to the AES architecture’s key expansion section to increase the speed of producing subkeys. The fork–join model of key expansion (FJMKE) architecture is developed to improve the speed of the subkey generation process, whereas the hardware resources of AES are minimized by avoiding the frequent computation of secret keys. The AES-FJMKE architecture generates all of the required subkeys in less than half the time required by the conventional architecture. The proposed AES-FJMKE architecture is designed and simulated using the Xilinx ISE 5.1 software. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) behaviour of the AES-FJMKE architecture is analysed by means of performance count for hardware resources, delay, and operating frequency. The existing AES architectures such as typical AES, AES-PNSG, AES-AT, AES-BE, ISAES, AES-RS, and AES-MPPRM are used to evaluate the efficiency of AES-FJMKE. The AES-FJMKE implemented using Spartan 6 FPGA used fewer slices (i.e., 76) than the AES-RS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Xiangyang Wang ◽  
Chunxiang Gu ◽  
Fushan Wei ◽  
Siqi Lu

As an Internet of things (IoT) technology, the ZigBee has a wide range of applications in home automation, smart energy, commercial building automation, personal, home and hospital care, telecom, and wireless sensor. The ZigBee standard has the advantage of high reliability, which is based on the security of authentication key agreement protocol, namely, the SKKE protocol. In the ZigBee standard, this protocol based on shared symmetric-key is applied on the security protocol level. It is a full symmetric-key key agreement with key confirmation scheme, while the key confirmation mechanism is provided by a message authentication coding mechanism. In this paper, we consider the security of the SKKE protocol. In the random Oracle model, we reduce the security of the SKKE protocol to the collision of the hash function and the HMAC function and the indistinguishability between the output of the random Oracle and a random number. We also give a theoretical proof with the game-based method. To our knowledge, there is no research on the provable security of the ZigBee protocol at this stage, so it is helpful to promote further research of the ZigBee protocol security.


Author(s):  
Basil Al-Kasasbeh

Cryptography is the core method utilized to protect the communications between different applications, terminals, and agents distributed worldwide and connected via the internet. Yet, with the distribution of the low-energy and low-storage devices, in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), the cryptography protocols cannot be implemented because of the power constraints or because the implementation is beyond the time constraints that hindered their usability of these protocols in real-time critical applications. To solve this problem, an Adaptive Multi-Application Cryptography System is proposed in this paper. The proposed system consists of the requirements identifier and the implementer, implemented on the application and transportation layer. The requirement identifier examines the header of the data, determines the underlying application and its type. The requirements are then identified and encoded according to four options: high, moderate, low, and no security requirements. The inputs are processed, and ciphertext is produced based on the identified requirements and the suitable cryptography algorithm. The results showed that the proposed system reduces the delay by 97% relative to the utilized algorithms' upper-bound delay. Keywords: Cryptography, symmetric key encryption, block cipher, delay and performance, quantum computing.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mihai Christodorescu ◽  
Sivanarayana Gaddam ◽  
Pratyay Mukherjee ◽  
Rohit Sinha
Keyword(s):  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document