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2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-82
Yael Tauman Kalai ◽  
Ran Raz ◽  
Ron D. Rothblum

We construct a 1-round delegation scheme (i.e., argument-system) for every language computable in time t = t ( n ), where the running time of the prover is poly ( t ) and the running time of the verifier is n · polylog ( t ). In particular, for every language in P we obtain a delegation scheme with almost linear time verification. Our construction relies on the existence of a computational sub-exponentially secure private information retrieval ( PIR ) scheme. The proof exploits a curious connection between the problem of computation delegation and the model of multi-prover interactive proofs that are sound against no-signaling (cheating) strategies , a model that was studied in the context of multi-prover interactive proofs with provers that share quantum entanglement, and is motivated by the physical principle that information cannot travel faster than light. For any language computable in time t = t ( n ), we construct a multi-prover interactive proof ( MIP ), that is, sound against no-signaling strategies, where the running time of the provers is poly ( t ), the number of provers is polylog ( t ), and the running time of the verifier is n · polylog ( t ). In particular, this shows that the class of languages that have polynomial-time MIP s that are sound against no-signaling strategies, is exactly EXP . Previously, this class was only known to contain PSPACE . To convert our MIP into a 1-round delegation scheme, we use the method suggested by Aiello et al. (ICALP, 2000), which makes use of a PIR scheme. This method lacked a proof of security. We prove that this method is secure assuming the underlying MIP is secure against no-signaling provers.

Xiaoqing Gu ◽  
Kaijian Xia ◽  
Yizhang Jiang ◽  
Alireza Jolfaei

Text sentiment classification is an important technology for natural language processing. A fuzzy system is a strong tool for processing imprecise or ambiguous data, and it can be used for text sentiment analysis. This article proposes a new formulation of a multi-task Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy system (TSK FS) modeling, which can be used for text sentiment image classification. Using a novel multi-task fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, the common (public) information among all tasks and the individual (private) information for each task are extracted. The information about clustering, for example, cluster centers, can be used to learn the antecedent parameters of multi-task TSK fuzzy systems. With the common and individual antecedent parameters obtained, a corresponding multi-task learning mechanism for learning consequent parameters is devised. Accordingly, a multi-task fuzzy clustering–based multi-task TSK fuzzy system (MTFCM-MT-TSK-FS) is proposed. When the proposed model is built, the information conveyed by the fuzzy rules formed is two-fold, including (1) common fuzzy rules representing the inter-task correlation information and (2) individual fuzzy rules depicting the independent information of each task. The experimental results on several text sentiment datasets demonstrate the validity of the proposed model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jiawen Du ◽  
Yong Pi

With the advent of the era of big data, people’s lives have undergone earth-shaking changes, not only getting rid of the cumbersome traditional data collection but also collecting and sorting information directly from people’s footprints on social networks. This paper explores and analyzes the privacy issues in current social networks and puts forward the protection strategies of users’ privacy data based on data mining algorithms so as to truly ensure that users’ privacy in social networks will not be illegally infringed in the era of big data. The data mining algorithm proposed in this paper can protect the user’s identity from being identified and the user’s private information from being leaked. Using differential privacy protection methods in social networks can effectively protect users’ privacy information in data publishing and data mining. Therefore, it is of great significance to study data publishing, data mining methods based on differential privacy protection, and their application in social networks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 734
Jaehyoung Park ◽  
Hyuk Lim

Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning technique that enables distributed devices to train a learning model collaboratively without sharing their local data. FL-based systems can achieve much stronger privacy preservation since the distributed devices deliver only local model parameters trained with local data to a centralized server. However, there exists a possibility that a centralized server or attackers infer/extract sensitive private information using the structure and parameters of local learning models. We propose employing homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme that can directly perform arithmetic operations on ciphertexts without decryption to protect the model parameters. Using the HE scheme, the proposed privacy-preserving federated learning (PPFL) algorithm enables the centralized server to aggregate encrypted local model parameters without decryption. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm allows each node to use a different HE private key in the same FL-based system using a distributed cryptosystem. The performance analysis and evaluation of the proposed PPFL algorithm are conducted in various cloud computing-based FL service scenarios.

2022 ◽  
Vijay Kumar Yadav ◽  
Nitish Andola ◽  
Shekhar Verma ◽  
S Venkatesan

Oblivious transfer (OT) protocol is an essential tool in cryptography that provides a wide range of applications like secure multi-party computation, private information retrieval, private set intersection, contract signing, and privacy-preserving location-based services. The OT protocol has different variants such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. In the OT (one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , and OT extension) protocol, the sender has a set of messages, whereas the receiver has a key. The receiver sends that key to the sender in a secure way; the sender cannot get any information about the received key. The sender encrypts every message by operating on every message using the received key and sends all the encrypted messages to the receiver. The receiver is able to extract only the required message using his key. However, in the k -out-of- n OT protocol, the receiver sends a set of k keys to the sender, and in replay, the sender sends all the encrypted messages. The receiver uses his keys and extracts the required messages, but it cannot gain any information about the messages that it has not requested. Generally, the OT protocol requires high communication and computation cost if we transfer millions of oblivious messages. The OT extension protocol provides a solution for this, where the receiver transfers a set of keys to the sender by executing a few numbers of OT protocols. Then, the sender encrypts all the messages using cheap symmetric key cryptography with the help of a received set of keys and transfer millions of oblivious messages to the receiver. In this work, we present different variants of OT protocols such as one-out-of-2, one-out-of- n , k -out-of- n , and OT extension. Furthermore, we cover various aspects of theoretical security guarantees such as semi-honest and malicious adversaries, universally composable, used techniques, computation, and communication efficiency aspects. From the analysis, we found that the semi-honest adversary-based OT protocols required low communication and computation costs as compared to malicious adversary-based OT protocols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 03054
Dehua Wu ◽  
Wan’ang Xiao ◽  
Shan Gao ◽  
Wanlin Gao

The Spectre attacks exploit the speculative execution vulnerabilities to exfiltrate private information by building a leakage channel. Creation of a leakage channel is the basic element for spectre attacks, among which the cache-tag side channel is considered to be the most serious one. To block the leakage channels, a novel cache applies Dynamic Mapping technology, named DmCache, is presented in this paper. DmCache applies a dynamic mapping mechanism to temporarily store all the cache lines polluted by speculative execution and keep invisible when accessing. Then it monitors the head of the reorder buffer to determine which polluted cache line can become visible. In this paper, we demonstrated that Spectre attacks exerted no impact on a processor system equipped with DmCache based on the analysis of the processor’s circuit behaviour, which equipped with the DmCache and under the Spectre attack.

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