noisy channels
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2022 ◽  
Zhan-Yun Wang ◽  
Feng-Lin Wu ◽  
Zhen-Yu Peng ◽  
Si-Yuan Liu

Abstract We investigate how the correlated actions of quantum channels affect the robustness of entangled states. We consider the Bell-like state and random two-qubit pure states in the correlated depolarizing, bit flip, bit-phase flip, and phase flip channels. It is found that the robustness of two-qubit pure states can be noticeably enhanced due to the correlations between consecutive actions of these noisy channels, and the Bell-like state is always the most robust state. We also consider the robustness of three-qubit pure states in correlated noisy channels. For the correlated bit flip and phase flip channels, the result shows that although the most robust and most fragile states are locally unitary equivalent, they exhibit different robustness in different correlated channels, and the effect of channel correlations on them is also significantly different. However, for the correlated depolarizing and bit-phase flip channels, the robustness of two special three-qubit pure states is exactly the same. Moreover, compared with the random three-qubit pure states, they are neither the most robust states nor the most fragile states.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Masahito Hayashi

When a network has relay nodes, there is a risk that a part of the information is leaked to an untrusted relay. Secure network coding (secure NC) is known as a method to resolve this problem, which enables the secrecy of the message when the message is transmitted over a noiseless network and a part of the edges or a part of the intermediate (untrusted) nodes are eavesdropped. If the channels on the network are noisy, the error correction is applied to noisy channels before the application of secure NC on an upper layer. In contrast, secure physical layer network coding (secure PLNC) is a method to securely transmit a message by a combination of coding operation on nodes when the network is composed of set of noisy channels. Since secure NC is a protocol on an upper layer, secure PLNC can be considered as a cross-layer protocol. In this paper, we compare secure PLNC with a simple combination of secure NC and error correction over several typical network models studied in secure NC.

2021 ◽  
Kwang-Il Kim ◽  
Myong Chol Pak ◽  
Tae-Hyok Kim ◽  
Jong Chol Kim ◽  
Yong-Hae Ko ◽  

Abstract We investigate robustness of bipartite and tripartite entangled states for fermionic systems in non-inertial frames, which are under noisy channels. We consider two Bell states and two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, which possess initially the same amount of entanglement, respectively. By using genuine multipartite (GM) concurrence, we analytically derive the equations that determine the difference between the robustness of these locally unitarily equivalent states under the amplitude-damping channel. We find that tendency of the robustness for two GHZ states evaluated by using three-tangle τ and GM concurrence as measures of genuine tripartite entanglement is equal to each other. We also find that the robustness of two Bell states is equal to each other under the depolarizing, phase damping and bit flip channels, and that the same is true for two GHZ states.

Diwakar Bhardwaj ◽  

Massive MIMO (M-MIMO) system comprises of multiple number of antennas to achieve energy- efficiency and large gains in spectral-efficiency in comparison to existing MIMO technology. High speed and Quality of Experience (QoE) of video data over wireless communication has always been a challenge for the researchers due to scarcity of the bandwidth, fading and interference. The channels with high noise corrupt the transmitted video and results in poor QoE of at the receiver. Therefore, to maintain the quality of transmitted video, it is highly desirable to identify noisy channels and avoid transmission over them. This paper deals with QoE of the transmitted video over Massive MIMO channels. The channels are categorized into two categories: good and bad depending upon the value of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR). A channel above the minimum acceptable value (threshold) of SINR is categorized as good channel otherwise bad channel. A Guided MAC layer (GMAC) protocol is designed to transmit the video data over good channels only and to discard the transmission over bad channels.

Quantum ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 569
Tamal Guha ◽  
Mir Alimuddin ◽  
Sumit Rout ◽  
Amit Mukherjee ◽  
Some Sankar Bhattacharya ◽  

Sharing correlated random variables is a resource for a number of information theoretic tasks such as privacy amplification, simultaneous message passing, secret sharing and many more. In this article, we show that to establish such a resource called shared randomness, quantum systems provide an advantage over their classical counterpart. Precisely, we show that appropriate albeit fixed measurements on a shared two-qubit state can generate correlations which cannot be obtained from any possible state on two classical bits. In a resource theoretic set-up, this feature of quantum systems can be interpreted as an advantage in winning a two players co-operative game, which we call the `non-monopolize social subsidy' game. It turns out that the quantum states leading to the desired advantage must possess non-classicality in the form of quantum discord. On the other hand, while distributing such sources of shared randomness between two parties via noisy channels, quantum channels with zero capacity as well as with classical capacity strictly less than unity perform more efficiently than the perfect classical channel. Protocols presented here are noise-robust and hence should be realizable with state-of-the-art quantum devices.

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