Narrative Review
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Sagayaraj Kanagaraj ◽  
S. Devishrree ◽  
J. Swetha ◽  
B. Krishna Priya ◽  
Srivarshini Sankar ◽  

AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes a variety of childhood-onset and lifelong neurodevelopmental condition with an enduring impact on multiple domains of functioning characterized by persistent deficits in social communication, restricted and repetitive behavior interest, and activities. They often find it hard to recognize and control emotions but their emotional expression can be improved by various intervention techniques that in turn can help them understand and respond more appropriately to other people. Problems in the area on emotional reciprocity among individual with ASD involve recognizing, understanding, expressing, and regulating emotions. Their ability in emotional reciprocity is often improved with a comprehensive treatment approach, especially by focused emotional enhancement intervention. In this review, we followed the standard IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) structure to critically examine the condition of autism and its relation with genetic mechanism, and how theories of emotion and theory of mind associated with persons with ASD, some of the widely used assessment tools and future research direction in the emotional development of individuals diagnosed with ASD by using the narrative review method. Records collected through research databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, EBSCO and published books with ISBN (International Standard Book Number), and published test manuals were evaluated in-depth and summarized based on the subtopic of the proposed title. A critical theoretical analysis of the genetic mechanism of emotions, theories of emotions, and theory of mind was explained in connection with ASD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
Naomi Sordan Borghi ◽  
Igor Euflauzino ◽  
Maria Alice Silva Ferraz de Araújo

Introduction: Brazilian’s history of psychiatric care is complex and has some dark periods, but the country managed to get international recognition for its mental health policies in the last years. Those have been currently suffering setbacks. Purpose: Review the historical context of mental health in Brazil, assessing the changes made after 2016, and carry out a critical analysis of the current inclination. Methodology: literature and narrative review using official governmental documents. Results and Discussion: Through its history, Brazil’s had ups and downs in the care of mental health patients. After almost 30 years of policies that are centered around the individual, and not only the individual’s disease, the hospitalocentric model of care has been subtly making its comeback, together with normatives that revogue rights before acquired and corroborates with segregation of the mentally ill. Conclusions: The current changes in the Mental Health politics are not walking alongside the line with movements responsible for the implementation of a biopsychosocial care. It provokes and invites us to continue fighting for fair health programs and for the continuation of the Universal Health System

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Stefano Busani ◽  
Marco Sarti ◽  
Francesco Serra ◽  
Roberta Gelmini ◽  
Sophie Venturelli ◽  

The widespread use of high-dose oxygen, to avoid perioperative hypoxemia along with WHO-recommended intraoperative hyperoxia to reduce surgical site infections, is an established clinical practice. However, growing pathophysiological evidence has demonstrated that hyperoxia exerts deleterious effects on many organs, mainly mediated by reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this narrative review was to present the pathophysiology of perioperative hyperoxia on surgical wound healing, on systemic macro and microcirculation, on the lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, gut, coagulation, and infections. We reported here that a high systemic oxygen supply could induce oxidative stress with inflammation, vasoconstriction, impaired microcirculation, activation of hemostasis, acute and chronic lung injury, coronary blood flow disturbances, cerebral ischemia, surgical anastomosis impairment, gut dysbiosis, and altered antibiotics susceptibility. Clinical studies have provided rather conflicting results on the definitions and outcomes of hyperoxic patients, often not speculating on the biological basis of their results, while this review highlighted what happens when supranormal PaO2 values are reached in the surgical setting. Based on the assumptions analyzed in this study, we may suggest that the maintenance of PaO2 within physiological ranges, avoiding unnecessary oxygen administration, may be the basis for good clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11661
Velia Malizia ◽  
Giuliana Ferrante ◽  
Salvatore Fasola ◽  
Laura Montalbano ◽  
Giovanna Cilluffo ◽  

Physical activity (PA) is proven to benefit children and adolescents in several ways. New technologies may provide children with stimulating modalities for organizing their leisure time, accessing fitness programs, and obtaining daily goal reminders and peer support. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, following WHO recommendations for PA is difficult for many children, especially for those living in urban areas. Therefore, the use of digital tools to support and maintain PA could be useful in healthy children, as well as in those with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). This narrative review aims to summarize the most recent evidence about the role of new technologies in promoting PA in healthy children and in those with CRDs, in supporting PA during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in enhancing psychological wellbeing in this age group. The use of technological devices for promoting PA, such as web/mobile apps and games, has been proven to be effective both in healthy children and in those with CRDs. In conclusion, new technologies are very promising in terms of feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy in promoting PA. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term health benefits of using these technologies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Hassan Zmerly ◽  
Manuela Moscato ◽  
Ibrahim Akkawi

Background: Loose bodies are frequently encountered during clinical activity and a common finding during knee arthroscopy. Usually, treatment consists of the removal of the loose bodies, which can be challenging even for experienced surgeons. The excision alone is not always the complete treatment, because loose bodies are generally secondary to other diseases that can cause persistent symptoms with the risk of new loose body formation. The aim of this narrative review is to show the clinical, imaging and arthroscopic evaluation of loose bodies in order to plan optimal treatment. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted to find the most recent and relevant studies investigating the aetiopathogenesis, the assessment tools and the therapeutic strategies for knee loose bodies and their related diseases. Results: When dealing with a loose body, the first issue is the evaluation of the intra-articular fragment (location, size, number, symptoms) and its aetiopathogenesis by identifying the underlying pathology (e.g., osteochondritis dissecans, osteoarthritis, chondral defect, tumour-like lesions, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.). In the case of symptomatic intra-articular loose bodies, treatment consists of fragment removal and the management of related diseases (e.g., lifestyle modification, physiotherapy, pharmacological and surgical treatment). Conclusion: Loose bodies are not separate entities and in addition to their pathological aspect, must be evaluated within the context of the underlying disease. Correct assessment and comprehensive management allow for relief of symptomatology and prevention of loose body formation by removal and treatment of the associated diseases.

2021 ◽  
Georges Abi Tayeh ◽  
Nour Khalil ◽  
Marwan Alkassis ◽  
Fouad Aoun ◽  
Chady Waked ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has modified the management of urothelial carcinoma (UC). Eighteen months after the onset of the pandemic, a scoping narrative review was able to state that radical cystectomy for UC should not be delayed beyond 10 weeks when neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was administered and 12 weeks when it was not. NAC should be considered when imminent chemotherapy cannot be performed. Early cystectomy should not be delayed when indicated for patients with high-risk non-MIBC. Patients with non-MIBC should still receive their induction doses of intravesical instillations. Diagnostic cystoscopy should not be deferred in symptomatic patients. Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) allows for a wider deferral interval.

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 ◽  
pp. 182-189
Waad Kheder ◽  
Sausan Al Kawas ◽  
Khaled Khalaf ◽  
A.R. Samsudin

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-48
Yusuke Nishimura ◽  
Grith Højfeldt ◽  
Leigh Breen ◽  
Inge Tetens ◽  
Lars Holm

Abstract Adequate protein intake is essential for the maintenance of whole-body protein mass. Different methodological approaches are used to substantiate the evidence for the current protein recommendation, and it is continuously debated whether older adults require more protein to counteract the age-dependent loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia. Thus, the purpose of this critical narrative review is to outline and discuss differences in the approaches and methodologies assessing the protein requirements and hence, resulting in controversies in current protein recommendations for healthy older adults. Through a literature search, this narrative review first summarizes the historical development of the FAO/WHO/UNU setting of protein requirements and recommendations for healthy older adults. Hereafter, we describe the various types of studies (epidemiological studies and protein turnover kinetic measurements) and applied methodological approaches founding the basis and the different recommendations with focus on healthy older adults. Finally, we discuss important factors to be considered in future studies to create evidence for international agreement on protein requirements and recommendations for healthy older adults. We conclude by proposing future directions to determine “true” protein requirement and recommendation for healthy older adults.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Alex F Warren ◽  
Carolyn Rosner ◽  
Raghav Gattani ◽  
Alex G Truesdell ◽  
Alastair G Proudfoot

The mortality of cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unacceptably high. Delays in the recognition of CS and access to disease-modifying or hemodynamically stabilizing interventions likely contribute to poor outcomes. In parallel to successful initiatives in other disease states, such as acute ST-elevation MI and major trauma, institutions are increasingly advocating the use of a multidisciplinary ‘shock team’ approach to CS management. A volume–outcome relationship exists in CS, as with many other acute cardiovascular conditions, and the emergence of ‘shock hubs’ as experienced facilities with an interest in improving CS outcomes through a hub-and-spoke ‘shock network’ approach provides another opportunity to deliver improved CS care as widely and equitably as possible. This narrative review outlines improvements from a networked approach to care, discusses a team-based and protocolized approach to CS management, reviews the available evidence and discusses the potential benefits, challenges, and opportunities of such systems of care.

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