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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-44
Jeong-Bo Moon ◽  
Jun-Hyung Kim ◽  
Yoon-Hee Kim ◽  
Byung-Ju Ryu

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 97-100
Piush Kanodia ◽  
Arun Kumar Verma ◽  
Sumit Adhikari

Introduction: Small for gestational age (SGA) refers to birth weight of neonates less than 10th percentile for gestational age or 2nd standard deviation below the population norms on the growth charts. Aims: To identify common risk factors and common morbidities for small for gestational age babies. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study and it has been conducted at Department of pediatrics, Nepalgunj Medical college which is a tertiary level teaching hospital located in western part of Nepal. All term small for gestational age neonates born during study period from January 2020 to December 2020 were included. Detailed baseline demographic and clinical profile has been collected and recorded in the predesigned Proforma. Results: The most common risk factors associated with small for gestational age babies in our study were maternal hypertension (14.6%) , maternal GDM(9.6%), Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome. Conclusion: The most common risk factors associated with Small for gestational age  babies in our study were maternal hypertension, maternal Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Urinary Tract Infection  in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age  babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).

2022 ◽  
D Muller ◽  
E Santos-Fernandez ◽  
J McCarthy ◽  
H Carr ◽  
T L Signal

Abstract: Study Objectives To investigate the proportion of children in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) who do or do not meet sleep duration and sleep quality guidelines at 24 and 45 months of age and associated sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants were children (n=6,490) from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study of child development with sleep data available at 24 and/or 45 months of age (48.2% girls, 51.8% boys; 22.4% Māori [the Indigenous people of NZ], 12.9% Pacific, 13.4% Asian, 45.2% European/Other). Relationships between sociodemographic factors and maternally-reported child sleep duration (across 24 hours) and night wakings were investigated cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Estimates of children in NZ meeting sleep guidelines were calculated using a range of analytical techniques including Bayesian linear regression, negative binomial multiple regression, and growth curve models. Results In NZ, 29.8% and 19.5% of children were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting sleep duration guidelines and 15.4% and 8.3% were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting night waking guidelines at 24 and 45 months respectively, after controlling for multiple sociodemographic variables. Factors associated cross-sectionally with children’s sleep included ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, material standard of living, rurality and heavy traffic, and longitudinal sleep trajectories differed by gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Conclusions A considerable proportion of young children in NZ have a high probability of not meeting sleep guidelines but this declines across the ages of 24 and 45 months. Sleep health inequities exist as early as 24 months of age in NZ.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rrezart Halili ◽  
Jeta Bunjaku ◽  
Bujar Gashi ◽  
Teuta Hoxha ◽  
Agron Kamberi ◽  

Abstract Background Many studies examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within populations using seroprevalence. Healthcare workers are a high-risk population due to patient contact, and studies are needed to examine seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. Our study investigates the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff at primary healthcare institutions in Prishtina, and factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey including SARS-CoV-2 serological testing and questionnaires with primary healthcare workers from primary healthcare facilities in the Prishtina, the capital city of Kosovo. We calculated prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and of self-reported positive PCR test among primary healthcare workers, as well as crude and adjusted ORs for explanatory factors. Results Eighty-three of the healthcare workers (17.47%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies IgG or IgM, while 231 (48.63%) either had antibodies or a previous positive PCR test. Odds of seropositivity were affected by male gender (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20, 3.61), and infected family members (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.25, 5.79) of healthcare workers. Higher education, being part of larger families and having infected family members gave higher odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity. Other healthcare workers had lower odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity than physicians. Conclusion Over 17% of healthcare workers were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and close to half of them were either seropositive or PCR self-reported positive test. Several factors are associated with decreased and increased odds for such outcomes. These findings should be explored further and addressed to Kosovo policy makers, and assist them to intensify vaccination efforts, and maintain control measures until we achieve herd immunity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Caroline F. Morrison ◽  
Sarah Drake ◽  
Nathan L. Basile ◽  
Mary Jane Horn ◽  
Joshua Lambert ◽  

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms experienced by survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and demographic and treatment-factors associated with ongoing symptomology. Methods: Fifty pediatric survivors completed a cross-sectional pilot study. Questionnaires were administered online via REDCap to assess symptoms experienced in the last week. Survivors also consented to a medical record chart review. Results: Survivors were on average 5.4 years post-HSCT (range 1.1 to 9 years), male (58%), and Caucasian (80%) who received an allogeneic HSCT (92%). The most commonly reported symptoms were difficulty concentrating (42.5%), pain (38%), worry (38%), nervousness (37.5%), and lack of energy/fatigue (34%). Survivors reported up to 14 symptoms, with 90% of the sample experiencing at least one symptom in the previous week. Average number of symptoms varied by age group between 2.1 (8–9 years) and 6.8 (18 and older). Age and female gender were associated with higher levels of fatigue. Conclusions: The majority of survivors experienced at least one symptom in the previous week. Neuropsychological symptoms and pain endure well into survivorship that can influence outcomes such as function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Research is needed on biological mechanisms of ongoing symptomology, effective interventions to prevent or mitigate symptoms, and the impact of symptoms on patient outcomes including daily functioning and HRQOL. Implications Survivors of pediatric HSCT continued to experience symptoms for up to nine years. Survivors should be frequently screened for symptoms, as symptoms may affect function, learning/employment outcomes, and HRQOL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Hanne Van Der Heijden ◽  
Benoit Fatou ◽  
Diana Sibai ◽  
Kacie Hoyt ◽  
Maria Taylor ◽  

Abstract Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a cluster of autoimmune rheumatic diseases occurring in children 16 years of age or less. While it is well-known that pain may be experienced during inflammatory and non-inflammatory states, much remains ambiguous regarding the molecular mechanisms that may drive JIA pain. Thus, in this pilot study, we explored the variability of the serum proteomes in relation to pain severity in a cohort of JIA patients. Methods Serum samples from 15 JIA patients (male and female, 12.7 ± 2.8 years of age) were assessed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationships among protein levels and self-reported clinical pain severity. Additionally, how the expression of pain-associated proteins related to markers of inflammation (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)) or morphological properties of the central nervous system (subcortical volume and cortical thickness) implicated in JIA were also evaluated. Results 306 proteins were identified in the JIA cohort of which 14 were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with clinical pain severity. Functional properties of the identified pain-associated proteins included but were not limited to humoral immunity (IGLV3.9), inflammatory response (PRG4) and angiogenesis (ANG). Associations among pain-associated proteins and ESR (IGHV3.9, PRG4, CST3, VWF, ALB), as well as caudate nucleus volume (BTD, AGT, IGHV3.74) and insular cortex thickness (BTD, LGALS3BP) were also observed. Conclusions The current proteomic findings suggest both inflammatory- and non-inflammatory mediated mechanisms as potential factors associated with JIA pain. Validation of these preliminary observations using larger patient cohorts and a longitudinal study design may further point to novel serologic markers of pain in JIA.

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