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2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 219-228
V. V. Efremov ◽  
Yu. A. Dolgusheva ◽  
B. Ndihokubvayo

Relevance . Epilepsy is a common neurological disease in tropical countries, especially in Africa. Its prevalence in African countries is almost twice as high as in Asia, Europe and North America. Objective: to investigate the characteristics of the spread and risk factors of epilepsy in the countries of the African continent. Materials and Methods : Based on WHO data, an epidemiological analysis of the prevalence and structure of mortality from epilepsy among the inhabitants of continental Africa was carried out. The African continent was clustered into five different regions with conventionally homogeneous sociocultural, climatic and geographic and environmental conditions and, as a consequence, similar dynamics of endemic diseases and infections. Demographic data, etiological factors, risk factors such as infectious diseases (including neglected diseases) with neurological consequences in the form of deaths from epilepsy were compared in five centers in the region. Mathematical and statistical processing of the results was carried out using the SPSS-19 statistical package (SPSS Inc., USA). Results and Discussion . Analysis of socio-demographic characteristics made it possible to establish that mortality from epilepsy is higher: in the countries of the African continent south of the Sahara in comparison with northern Africa; in women compared to men; in the age group younger than 14 compared to older groups and also in countries of subregions with an unsatisfactory state of national health systems and a low level of socio-economic situation in general. Conclusion . State programs aimed at reducing various factors of injury, violence, the prevalence of maternal mortality and hunger, the frequency of suicide among the population can help reduce the prevalence and mortality from epilepsy. In addition, a significant number of risk factors for epilepsy in African countries are virulent and potentially preventable. First of all, these include: neurocysticercosis, schistosomiasis, HIV infection and various forms of meningitis. Health care interventions to prevent these diseases can also significantly reduce the prevalence of epilepsy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (OOPSLA) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Dan Iorga ◽  
Alastair F. Donaldson ◽  
Tyler Sorensen ◽  
John Wickerson

Heterogeneous CPU/FPGA devices, in which a CPU and an FPGA can execute together while sharing memory, are becoming popular in several computing sectors. In this paper, we study the shared-memory semantics of these devices, with a view to providing a firm foundation for reasoning about the programs that run on them. Our focus is on Intel platforms that combine an Intel FPGA with a multicore Xeon CPU. We describe the weak-memory behaviours that are allowed (and observable) on these devices when CPU threads and an FPGA thread access common memory locations in a fine-grained manner through multiple channels. Some of these behaviours are familiar from well-studied CPU and GPU concurrency; others are weaker still. We encode these behaviours in two formal memory models: one operational, one axiomatic. We develop executable implementations of both models, using the CBMC bounded model-checking tool for our operational model and the Alloy modelling language for our axiomatic model. Using these, we cross-check our models against each other via a translator that converts Alloy-generated executions into queries for the CBMC model. We also validate our models against actual hardware by translating 583 Alloy-generated executions into litmus tests that we run on CPU/FPGA devices; when doing this, we avoid the prohibitive cost of synthesising a hardware design per litmus test by creating our own 'litmus-test processor' in hardware. We expect that our models will be useful for low-level programmers, compiler writers, and designers of analysis tools. Indeed, as a demonstration of the utility of our work, we use our operational model to reason about a producer/consumer buffer implemented across the CPU and the FPGA. When the buffer uses insufficient synchronisation -- a situation that our model is able to detect -- we observe that its performance improves at the cost of occasional data corruption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (OOPSLA) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Haoran Xu ◽  
Fredrik Kjolstad

Fast compilation is important when compilation occurs at runtime, such as query compilers in modern database systems and WebAssembly virtual machines in modern browsers. We present copy-and-patch, an extremely fast compilation technique that also produces good quality code. It is capable of lowering both high-level languages and low-level bytecode programs to binary code, by stitching together code from a large library of binary implementation variants. We call these binary implementations stencils because they have holes where missing values must be inserted during code generation. We show how to construct a stencil library and describe the copy-and-patch algorithm that generates optimized binary code. We demonstrate two use cases of copy-and-patch: a compiler for a high-level C-like language intended for metaprogramming and a compiler for WebAssembly. Our high-level language compiler has negligible compilation cost: it produces code from an AST in less time than it takes to construct the AST. We have implemented an SQL database query compiler on top of this metaprogramming system and show that on TPC-H database benchmarks, copy-and-patch generates code two orders of magnitude faster than LLVM -O0 and three orders of magnitude faster than higher optimization levels. The generated code runs an order of magnitude faster than interpretation and 14% faster than LLVM -O0. Our WebAssembly compiler generates code 4.9X-6.5X faster than Liftoff, the WebAssembly baseline compiler in Google Chrome. The generated code also outperforms Liftoff's by 39%-63% on the Coremark and PolyBenchC WebAssembly benchmarks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 778
Rajkumar Krishnan Vasanthi ◽  
Lee Cai Ling ◽  
Yughdtheswari Muniandy

Digital health intervention (DHI) can solve the patient's problem, such as geographical inaccessibility, delayed provision of care, low-level adherence to clinical protocols, and financial burden. DHI does not necessary to work as a substitution for a functioning health system but helps strengthen its function. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the awareness, perception, and acceptability of digital physiotherapy intervention (DPI) among Malaysian physiotherapists. A total of 209 practicing physiotherapists representing all the regions in Malaysia participated in this online self-reported questionnaire, including demographics profile, continuous professional development, awareness, perception and acceptability of DPI. Analyzed the collected data to determine the knowledge of DPI by using descriptive statistical methods. A 75.1% of the Malaysian physiotherapist aware of digital physiotherapy intervention, 69.38% perceived it reduces the cost for face to face, reduce the time for traveling 47.85%, improve adherence to exercises 42.58%, 78% of them agree with the DPI and 75.1% of them accepted to recommend the digital tools to their patient. Malaysian physiotherapists are aware, agree and recommend the digital physiotherapy intervention to their treatment plan. However, it should still raise awareness about digital physiotherapy intervention to lead them to the future. Developing new digital tools, utilization, and overcoming the various healthcare institutions' low acceptability considering the cost, conventional interventions, and time-consuming should be strategized in Malaysia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

A new deep learning-based classification model called the Stochastic Dilated Residual Ghost (SDRG) was proposed in this work for categorizing histopathology images of breast cancer. The SDRG model used the proposed Multiscale Stochastic Dilated Convolution (MSDC) model, a ghost unit, stochastic upsampling, and downsampling units to categorize breast cancer accurately. This study addresses four primary issues: first, strain normalization was used to manage color divergence, data augmentation with several factors was used to handle the overfitting. The second challenge is extracting and enhancing tiny and low-level information such as edge, contour, and color accuracy; it is done by the proposed multiscale stochastic and dilation unit. The third contribution is to remove redundant or similar information from the convolution neural network using a ghost unit. According to the assessment findings, the SDRG model scored overall 95.65 percent accuracy rates in categorizing images with a precision of 99.17 percent, superior to state-of-the-art approaches.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Emmanuel Sarpong-Kumankoma

PurposeThis paper aims to investigate the impact of financial literacy on savings and retirement planning in Ghana.Design/methodology/approachThe study uses primary data collected from a sample of formal sector workers and probit models, to assess how financial literacy affects retirement planning.FindingsThe empirical analysis of this study shows that most individuals lack knowledge of basic concepts of finance. This study finds that only about 27% of respondents were able to correctly answer three simple questions on inflation, interest compounding and risk diversification. Generally, the young, the old, women, low-income earners and the less educated perform worst on financial literacy measures. Also, financial literacy has a positive significant impact on the probability of saving for retirement.Practical implicationsThe low level of financial literacy observed should be of concern to policymakers. Evidently, concrete measures are required to strengthen the knowledge of particularly those in the vulnerable groups such as the young, the old, women, low-income earners and the less educated, in order to enable them to prepare adequately for retirement.Originality/valueThe study contributes to the scant financial literacy and financial behavior literature in developing countries such as Ghana.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Miguel A. Gama Sosa ◽  
Rita De Gasperi ◽  
Dylan Pryor ◽  
Georgina S. Perez Garcia ◽  
Gissel M. Perez ◽  

AbstractCerebral vascular injury as a consequence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury is primarily the result of blast wave-induced mechanical disruptions within the neurovascular unit. In rodent models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury, chronic vascular degenerative processes are associated with the development of an age-dependent post-traumatic stress disorder-like phenotype. To investigate the evolution of blast-induced chronic vascular degenerative changes, Long-Evans rats were blast-exposed (3 × 74.5 kPa) and their brains analyzed at different times post-exposure by X-ray microcomputed tomography, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. On microcomputed tomography scans, regional cerebral vascular attenuation or occlusion was observed as early as 48 h post-blast, and cerebral vascular disorganization was visible at 6 weeks and more accentuated at 13 months post-blast. Progression of the late-onset pathology was characterized by detachment of the endothelial and smooth muscle cellular elements from the neuropil due to degeneration and loss of arteriolar perivascular astrocytes. Development of this pathology was associated with vascular remodeling and neuroinflammation as increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), collagen type IV loss, and microglial activation were observed in the affected vasculature. Blast-induced chronic alterations within the neurovascular unit should affect cerebral blood circulation, glymphatic flow and intramural periarterial drainage, all of which may contribute to development of the blast-induced behavioral phenotype. Our results also identify astrocytic degeneration as a potential target for the development of therapies to treat blast-induced brain injury.

D. A. Sevostyanov ◽  
T. Yu. Kaloshina ◽  
A. R. Gainanova

The article presents a study of the goal setting by modern students. The authors analyze the role of goal setting in educational and future professional activities. The authors consider goal setting in the structure of valueoriented activity. They reveal the correlation of prosocial and egoistic values of students. The article provides a brief overview of modern approaches to goal setting. The authors consider various aspects of goal setting related to future professional activities, family life planning and the formation of material prosperity. The practical part of the study includes an analysis of goal setting based on a survey of 479 respondents (172 male, 307 female). The respondents were senior students of Novosibirsk universities. The researchers asked the respondents to formulate their life goals for one year, for five years, and for life. The results of this study are diverse. On the one hand, it reveals disturbing trends (a low level of prosocial motives expressed in the goal setting by students, as well as a small percentage of students who associate their future with research activities). Consumer motivation is expressed in student’s goal setting much more strongly than prosocial motivation. On the other hand, the results of the study allow us to speak about the preservation of the importance of family values in the views of modern students. There is a desire to acquire housing in the property, which indicates a tendency to settle down. This contradicts the ideas about the prospect of increasing the mobility of labor resources in Russia. It is also significant that only less than a third of young men and less than a third of girls expressed their intention to start their own business, which indirectly indicates the relatively modest prospects for the development of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. Finally, the study showed a low level of emigrant sentiment among the surveyed students. The authors consider it expedient to organize such studies everywhere on an ongoing basis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 95
Lauren Suchman ◽  
Edward Owino ◽  
Dominic Montagu

Background: Equitable access to health services can be constrained in countries where private practitioners make up a large portion of primary care providers. Expanding purchasing arrangements has helped many countries integrate private providers into government-supported payment schemes, reducing financial barriers to care. However, private providers often must go through an onerous accreditation process to enroll in these schemes. The difficulties of this process are exacerbated where health policy is changed often and low-level bureaucrats must navigate these shifts at their own discretion. This paper analyzes one initiative to increase private provider accreditation with social health insurance (SHI) in Kenya by creating an intermediary between providers and “street-level” SHI bureaucrats. Methods: This paper draws on 126 semi-structured interviews about SHI accreditation experience with private providers who were members of a franchise network in Kenya. It also draws on four focus group discussions conducted with franchise representatives who provided accreditation support to the providers and served as liaisons between the franchised providers and local SHI offices. There was a total of 20 participants across all four focus groups. Results: In a governance environment where regulations are weak and impermanent, street-level bureaucrats often created an accreditation process that was inconsistent and opaque. Support from the implementing organizations increased communication between SHI officials and providers, which clarified rules and increased providers’ confidence in the system. The intermediaries also reduced bureaucrats’ ability to apply regulations at will and helped to standardize the accreditation process for both providers and bureaucrats. Conclusions: We conclude that intermediary organizations can mitigate institutional weaknesses and facilitate process efficiency. However, intermediaries only have a temporary role to play where there is potential to: 1) directly increase private providers’ power in a complex regulatory system; 2) reform the system itself to be more responsive to the limitations of on-the-ground implementation.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 2499
Prabhat R. Tripathi ◽  
V. Laxmi ◽  
Ritesh K. Keshri ◽  
Bhargav Appasani ◽  
Taha Selim Ustun

Single-stage high-gain inverters have recently gained much research focus as interfaces for inherent low voltage DC sources such as fuel cells, storage batteries, and solar panels. Many impedance-assisted inverters with different input stage configurations have been presented. To decrease passive component sizes, these inverters operate at high-frequency switching. The high-frequency switching optimizes the passive component sizes but introduces many challenges in the form of high-frequency inductor design, control complexity, high-frequency gate driver requirements, high semiconductor losses, and electromagnetic interferences. This article proposes a novel fundamental frequency switching operation for the conventional voltage source inverters (VSI) to operate as a single-stage high-gain inverter. As the novel operational strategy changes the behavior of conventional VSI from buck inverter to a boost inverter, it is hereafter termed as a novel inverter. By virtue of the operation strategy, switches withstand peak inverse voltage (PIV) equal to DC link voltage, unlike other impedance assisted boost inverters where PIV across switches is the amplified DC voltage. The proposed inverter can invert low-level DC voltage to high voltage AC with low total harmonic distortion (THD) in a single stage without the help of any external filter. A novel quarter-wave symmetric phase-shift controller is proposed for variable voltage and frequency control of proposed inverters tuned by a back-propagation thin-plate-spline neural network (BPTPSNN). Mathematical analysis with experimental validation is presented. Experimentation is carried out on a prototype of 2 kW for single-phase resistive load, induction motor, and non-linear loads.

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