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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Eunice Jun ◽  
Melissa Birchfield ◽  
Nicole De Moura ◽  
Jeffrey Heer ◽  
René Just

Data analysis requires translating higher level questions and hypotheses into computable statistical models. We present a mixed-methods study aimed at identifying the steps, considerations, and challenges involved in operationalizing hypotheses into statistical models, a process we refer to as hypothesis formalization . In a formative content analysis of 50 research papers, we find that researchers highlight decomposing a hypothesis into sub-hypotheses, selecting proxy variables, and formulating statistical models based on data collection design as key steps. In a lab study, we find that analysts fixated on implementation and shaped their analyses to fit familiar approaches, even if sub-optimal. In an analysis of software tools, we find that tools provide inconsistent, low-level abstractions that may limit the statistical models analysts use to formalize hypotheses. Based on these observations, we characterize hypothesis formalization as a dual-search process balancing conceptual and statistical considerations constrained by data and computation and discuss implications for future tools.

2022 ◽  
Vol 160 ◽  
pp. 107085
Yiyi Xu ◽  
Eva M Andersson ◽  
Hanne Krage Carlsen ◽  
Peter Molnár ◽  
Susanna Gustafsson ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 197-202
Intan Permata Sari ◽  
Fauziah Adhima ◽  
Ghivari Zuhal Fahmi ◽  
Ramidha Syaharani ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Introduction: As of 31st December 2021, there have been 4,262,540 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 144,088 death cases in Indonesia. COVID-19 pandemic has affected the nutrition aspect, as an increasing number of undernutrition children also increases risk of obesity. Our group conducts webinars with the purpose of increasing public knowledge and awareness regarding general well-being: importance of adequate nutrition to increase immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study is to examine webinar participants' knowledge before and after webinar. Method: The webinar conducted through a zoom meeting for 2 hours consists of 1 hour education and 1 hour question and answer session. The participants asked to fill a pretest before the webinar session and posttest after the webinar session. The results were statistically examined to determine the difference between pretest and posttest score. Results: The webinar participant’s demographic characteristics were dominated by 17-45 years old age group, high school graduates, and female participants. There is a significant difference (p<0.05) between pre and post-test score evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After the webinar, there is a decreased number of participants with low-level nutritional knowledge from 31 to 23 participants. Conclusion: There is an increase in knowledge about the importance of adequate nutrition to increase immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic from pre and post-test data. Thus, this webinar contributes to providing knowledge to participants in supporting the strengthening of socialization of adequate nutrition during COVID-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tingting Jiang ◽  
Buyun Yang ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
Bo Wu ◽  
Guoguang Wan

Purpose The environment of international business (IB) and the capabilities of emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) as well as their home countries have changed significantly, leading to some new features of liability of origin (LOR). This paper aims to extend the LOR literature by particularly focusing on the LOR of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs) and by taking into account the heterogeneity among industries and across individual MNEs. Design/methodology/approach Based on the stereotype content model and organizational legitimacy perspective, this study explores how LOR influences Chinese MNEs’ cross-border acquisition completions. Several hypotheses were tested by using a binary logistic regression model with panel data techniques based on data of 780 Chinese MNEs’ acquisition deals between 2008 and 2018. Findings The results of this study show that when the competence dimension of China’s LOR is perceived as high in the host country, Chinese MNEs are less likely to complete cross-border acquisitions. Moreover, deals are less likely to be completed when the warmth dimension of China’s LOR is perceived to be low. Global experience and the foreign-listed status of individual Chinese MNEs can alter the relationship between the LOR and deal completions. Originality/value This study advances and enriches the LOR research. It shows that a high level of competence in the home country has led to LOR for Chinese MNEs rather than the low level of competence proposed by existing LOR studies; and the LOR for Chinese MNEs is also determined by the perceived low level of warmth in the home country resulting from the geopolitical conflicts between two countries. In addition, the LOR suffered by EMNEs could vary based on certain industry- and firm-level characteristics. The findings of this study provide important practical implications for emerging economy governments and for firms intending to go abroad.

10.29007/qnmf ◽  
2022 ◽  
Thien Hau Tran ◽  
Minh Thai Tran ◽  
Thi Ngoc Dung Tran ◽  
Thi Thien Hoa Ngo

In this paper, we present some results obtained from the simulation of low power 633, 780, 850, and 940 nm laser in the liver by Monte Carlo method, with the model of the liver, consisting of 5mm derm, 7mm subcutaneous fat, 5 mm muscle layer. Based on these results, we fabricated devices called “Laser Semiconductor Optoacupuncture and phototherapy Device” using 780 and 940nm semiconductor lasers to treat chronic hepatitis. We combined with the doctor in An Giang province to clinical practice for 50 voluntary patients with chronic hepatitis. We used a 650 nm wavelength intravascular semiconductor laser treatment clinically to provide high-quality blood to the patients’ liver. Treating the phototherapy of the skin with two semiconductor laser beams with 780 nm and 940 nm wavelengths directly affects the liver from the surface of the abdomen. At the moment, we use the treatment on acupoint with 940nm- wavelength laser. A treatment course consists of 20 times for the patients is treated continuously. The patients tested with the ALT and AST before and after treatment with 3 courses. We use the SPSS 23 statistical method to evaluate the outcomes of treatment. The clinical symptoms of the patients such as fatigue, nausea, indigestion, fever, jaundice, yellow eyes almost completely have gone out after treatment. Low-level laser therapy offers a good response in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment such as the AST of 56.380 ± 10.162 and 39.260 ± 4.869; The ALT of 56.540 ± 13.580 and 41,360 ± 7,488 for before- and after treatments, respectively. Low-level laser therapy for patients initially has good results, high therapeutic effectiveness, no catastrophic or side Effects, and the statistical significance is p &lt; 0.001.This research applied the ethical principles of the Helsinki Declaration in human researches. The research was carried out using non-invasive methods on humans with the regulations of the University of Technology, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, and the relevant regulations.

10.29007/lll3 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Thi Tien Pham ◽  
Mai Thuc Vy Huynh ◽  
Tran Hong Duyen Trinh ◽  
Trung Nghia Tran ◽  
Anh Tu Tran

This research aims to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of the burn for the mouse. Four mouses are divided into 4 groups. Group 1, 2, 3 are irradiated by a wavelength of 532nm, 850nm, and 940nm. Group 4 is a control group that has a natural recovery. Low-level laser therapy makes the regenerative process, healing occurs faster, and rehabilitation of mouse activity during treatment.

10.29007/ch88 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Mai Thuc Vy Huynh ◽  
Thi Tien Pham ◽  
My Nga Truong ◽  
Tran Hong Duyen Trinh

Applying laser technology to the growth of plants to limit the use of chemical fertilizers is an interesting topic in agriculture. The main idea is to preserve the environment, ensuring product quality while still achieving high productivity, we decided to carry out this research project, to investigate the effect of the low-level laser (the wavelengths 532nm, 850nm, and 940nm) on stems and leaf development. It is expected that with these research results, the implementation method will be widely disseminated in the high agricultural sector, coming closer to farmers. Moreover, the results of the analysis of the composition of bitter melon stems and leaves will be applied in medical treatment (such as diabetes, wound treatment, anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria ...)

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 978-989
Ahmad Fawaiq Suwanan ◽  
Syahrul Munir ◽  
Santi Merlinda

Sovereign Sukuk has become a promising instrument for a country to overcome difficulties in financing government projects. Sukuk is a financial instrument for the Islamic capital market with a low level of risk. Green sukuk becomes popular since most of the conventional investment activities ignore the environment aspect. Starting in 2018, Indonesian government has developed a green sukuk scheme as a financing instrument for environmentally friendly projects to reduce the impact of global climate change. This study aims to analyze the role and challenges of green sukuk for climate change resilience in highly vulnerable areas during the Covid-19 crisis. This study is conducted through a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach. Data collections are carried out through literature studies and case studies on some climate projects in highly vulnerable areas in Indonesia. The results show that during the Covid-19 pandemic, green sukuk has contributed an important impact for climate change resilience in highly vulnerable areas. There are some challenges in the development of green sukuk. The lack of awareness of social risks as well as environmental risks have become main challenges. In the future, the decision policy makers should provide greater incentives and a more inclusive legal umbrella for green financing schemes.

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