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2021 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 106830
Unmesha Roy Paladhi ◽  
Kimberly N. Dalve ◽  
Sixtine O. Gurrey ◽  
Stephen E. Hawes ◽  
Brianna Mills

2021 ◽  
Vol 136 ◽  
pp. 102587
Wenjia Cao ◽  
Robert V. Rohli ◽  
Fenglin Han ◽  
Anthony J. Vega ◽  
Nazla Bushra ◽  

Linda Resnik

Motohiro Nakajima ◽  
Abdifatah Haji ◽  
Abdul Sero ◽  
Sartu Taha ◽  
Hileena Habte ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Emily F. Pomeranz ◽  
Darragh Hare ◽  
Daniel J. Decker ◽  
Ann B. Forstchen ◽  
Cynthia A. Jacobson ◽  

Public wildlife management in the United States is transforming as agencies seek relevancy to broader constituencies. State agencies in the United States, while tasked with conserving wildlife for all beneficiaries of the wildlife trust, have tended to manage for a limited range of benefits in part due to a narrow funding model heavily dependent on hunting, fishing, and trapping license buyers. To best meet the needs, interests, and concerns of a broader suite of beneficiaries, agencies will need to reconsider how priorities for management are set. This presents an opportunity for conservation program design and evaluation to be elevated in importance. We argue that success in wildlife conservation in the U.S. requires assessment of both decision-making processes and management results in relation to four questions: conservation of what, under what authority, for what purposes, and for whom?

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 2878
Rosario Sanchez ◽  
Laura Rodriguez

In 2016, research suggested there might be up to 36 transboundary aquifers located along the border between Mexico and the U.S. The main contribution of this study was to put together the available segments already existent in the literature without considering the validity of the criteria used to define the boundaries of those segments. In 2018, updated research reported 33 hydrogeological units (HGUs) crossing the boundaries between Mexico and Texas. This later analysis included the homogenization of geological nomenclatures, standardization of geological and hydrogeological criteria, using a specific methodology to correlate, identify, and delineate each HGU. The purpose of this paper is to use this latter methodology and expand the same analysis to include the transboundary aquifers between Baja California/California, Sonora/Arizona, and Chihuahua/New Mexico. Results of this study indicate that a total of 39 HGUs have been identified in this region which accounts for an approximate shareable land of 135,000 km2 where both countries share half of the area. From the total shareable area, around 40% reports good to moderate aquifer potential and water quality, of which 65% is in the U.S. and 35% on the Mexico side. Border-wide, the total number of HGUs in the border region between Mexico and the United States is 72, covering an approximate area of 315,000 km2 (180,000 km2 on the U.S. side and 135,000 km2 on the Mexico side). The total area that reports good to moderate aquifer potential as well as good to regular water quality ranges between 50 and 55% (of which approximately 60% is in the U.S. and the rest in Mexico).

2021 ◽  
Naveen Joseph ◽  
Catherine Propper ◽  
Madeline Goebel ◽  
Shantel Henry ◽  
Indrakshi Roy ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0255844
Kristina W. Kintziger ◽  
Kahler W. Stone ◽  
Meredith A. Jagger ◽  
Jennifer A. Horney

Introduction Funding and staff formerly dedicated to routine public health tasks (e.g., responding to communicable and non-communicable diseases, investigating foodborne outbreaks, conducting routine surveillance) and services (e.g., environmental health, substance abuse, maternal-child health) may no longer be available in many public health departments due to the COVID-19 response. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which staffing for essential public health services has been redirected to the COVID-19 response. Materials and methods This is a cross-sectional study using a survey distributed through the Qualtrics platform. Individuals (N = 298) working in public health across governmental and academic public health departments in the U.S. during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic response were surveyed. Survey items measured multiple domains including professional experience (i.e., training, years of experience, content expertise, job functions, hours worked), mental and physical health status (i.e., generalized anxiety, depression, burnout), and career plans (i.e., pre-pandemic vs. current career plans). Results The total number of content expertise areas and programmatic functions covered by individual public health workers increased between January and September of 2020, with 26% (73 of 282) of respondents reporting an increase in both. The total number of respondents working in infectious disease and preparedness remained constant, while declines were reported in program evaluation (-36%) and health education (-27%) and increases were reported in disease investigation (+35%). Conclusions The provision of many essential public health functions and tasks have been limited or eliminated while the U.S. public health workforce responds to the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight opportunities for funding and professional development of public health systems, both during and after the COVID-19 response, to help ensure the continuity of essential public health services, staffing sustainability, and preparedness for future public health emergencies in the U.S.

2021 ◽  
Barbara A Cohn ◽  
Piera M Cirillo ◽  
Caitlin C Murphy ◽  
Nickilou Y Krigbaum ◽  
Arthur W Wallace

National data on COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infections is inadequate but urgently needed to determine U.S. policy during the emergence of the Delta variant. We address this gap by comparing SARS CoV-2 infection by vaccination status from February 1, 2021 to August 13, 2021 in the Veterans Health Administration, covering 2.7% of the U.S. population. Vaccine protection declined by mid-August 2021, decreasing from 91.9% in March to 53.9% (p<0.01, n=619,755). Declines were greatest for the Janssen vaccine followed by PfizerBioNTech and Moderna. Patterns of breakthrough infection over time were consistent by age, despite rolling vaccine eligibility, implicating the Delta variant as the primary determinant of infection. Findings support continued efforts to increase vaccination and an immediate, national return to additional layers of protection against infection.

Rachel Gaal ◽  
James L. Kinter

AbstractMesoscale convective systems (MCS) are known to develop under ideal conditions of temperature and humidity profiles and large-scale dynamic forcing. Recent work, however, has shown that summer MCS events can occur under weak synoptic forcing or even unfavorable large-scale environments. When baroclinic forcing is weak, convection may be triggered by anomalous conditions at the land surface. This work evaluates land surface conditions for summer MCS events forming in the U.S. Great Plains using an MCS database covering the contiguous United States east of the Rocky Mountains, in boreal summers 2004-2016. After isolating MCS cases where synoptic-scale influences are not the main driver of development (i.e. only non-squall line storms), antecedent soil moisture conditions are evaluated over two domain sizes (1.25° and 5° squares) centered on the mean position of the storm initiation. A negative correlation between soil moisture and MCS initiation is identified for the smaller domain, indicating that MCS events tend to be initiated over patches of anomalously dry soils of ~100-km scale, but not significantly so. For the larger domain, soil moisture heterogeneity, with anomalously dry soils (anomalously wet soils) located northeast (southwest) of the initiation point, is associated with MCS initiation. This finding is similar to previous results in the Sahel and Europe that suggest that induced meso-β circulations from surface heterogeneity can drive convection initiation.

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