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Author(s):  
Sarah Cheah ◽  
Yijun Gao ◽  
Shirley Mo ◽  
Georgia Rigas ◽  
Oliver Fisher ◽  
...  

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 181
Author(s):  
Massimo Venditti ◽  
Sergio Minucci

The identification and characterization of new proteins involved in spermatogenesis is fundamental, considering that good-quality gametes are basic in ensuring proper reproduction. Here, we further analyzed the temporal and spatial localization during the first spermatogenic wave of rat testis of EHBP1L1, which is involved in vesicular trafficking due to the CH and bMERB domains, which bind to actin and Rab8/10, respectively. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that EHBP1L1 protein expression started at 21 days post-partum (dpp) concomitantly with the appearance of primary spermatocytes (I SPC). In subsequent stages, EHBP1L1 specifically localized together with actin in the perinuclear cytoplasm close to the acrosomal and Golgian regions of spermatids (SPT) during the different phases of acrosome biogenesis (AB). Moreover, it was completely absent in elongated SPT and in mature spermatozoa, suggesting that its role was completed in previous stages. The combined data, also supported by our previous report demonstrating that EHBP1L1 mRNA was expressed by primary (I) and secondary (II) SPC, lead us to hypothesize its specific role during AB. Although these results are suggestive, further studies are needed to better clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of AB, with the aim to use EHBP1L1 as a potential new marker for spermatogenesis.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
S.Sos. Muh Yunus ◽  
SUMARNI
Keyword(s):  

KATA PENGANTARAlhamdulillah Dengan mengucapkan Syukur atas Kehadirat ALLAH SWT atas segala Rahmat dalam memberikan kekuatan dan kesempatan sehingga buku yang berjudul “ASUHAN KEBIDANAN IBU POST PARTUM”.Tak lupa pula dalam penyusunan buku ini tidak terlepas dari berbagai pihak yang membantu memberikan doa dan cinta dari kedua orang tua, suami dan anakku Muh. Aqil Sahid Mahya dan Muh. Fadhil Algazali serta saudara saudariku yang sangat amat kucintai, serta rekan rekan sekantor yang banyak memberikan motivasiSeperti lazimnya sebuah buku, tidak terlepas dari ketidak lengkapan isi, demikian juga dengan buku ini. Namun, terlepas dari segala kekurangan yang ada. Semoga buku ini dapat memberikan manfaat kepada yang membacanya . Terimakasih


Author(s):  
P.M. Shinde ◽  
M.V. Ingawale ◽  
C.H. Pawshe ◽  
S.P. Waghmare ◽  
S.W. Hajare ◽  
...  

Background: At present there is huge demand for Gir cow females however, prolonged inter calving period, more inseminations per conception and post-partum anestrus are the predominant reproductive disorder along with use of unsexed semen limit the birth of more females in Gir cows. The present research study was conducted to study the effect of sex sorted semen in synchronized estrus with Ovsynch protocol on pregnancy rate and gender ratio in Gir cows. Methods: Total twenty Gir cows that have completed post-partum period of sixty days with normal reproductive genitalia, without clinical as well as subclinical infection were selected and divided into two equal groups. The cows from both the groups were synchronized with Ovsynch protocol. In Group- I (n=10), the cows were inseminated with sex sorted semen while in Group-II, the cows were inseminated with coneventional semen. The pregnancy rate and gender ratio was recorded. Result: Efficacy of estrus synchronization was 100.00 per cent for Gir cows treated by Ovsynch protocol in both groups. The pregnancy rate was numerically lower after AI with sex sorted semen (40%) than conventional semen (50%) and results are non significant (P less than 0.05) with 100% calving rate. The proportion of female calves born from sex sorted semen AI was 75% and from conventional semen was 60%. The proportion of live calves born from sex sorted and conventional semen AI was 100%. The sex sorted semen may be used in Ovsynch protocol in Gir cows.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anick Bérard ◽  
Jessica Gorgui ◽  
Vanina Tchuente ◽  
Anaïs Lacasse ◽  
Yessica-Haydee Gomez ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction: We aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health, stratifying on pregnancy status, trimester of gestation, and pandemic period/wave.Methods: Pregnant persons and persons who delivered in Canada during the pandemic, >18 years, were recruited, and data were collected using a web-based strategy. The current analysis includes data on persons enrolled between 06/2020-08/2021. Maternal sociodemographic indicators, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7), stress) were self-reported. Maternal mental health in pregnant women (stratified by trimester, and pandemic period/wave at recruitment) was compared with mental health of women who had delivered; determinants of severe depression were identified with multivariate logistic regression models.Results: 2,574 persons were pregnant and 626 had already delivered at recruitment. Participants who had delivered had significantly higher mean depressive symptom scores compared to those pregnant at recruitment (9.1 (SD, 5.7) vs. 8.4 (SD, 5.3), p=0.009). Among those who were pregnant at recruitment, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in women recruited in their third trimester, and those recruited during the 2nd wave of the pandemic. Maternal anxiety (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.44-1.59) and stress (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 1.24-1.48) were the most significant predictors of severe maternal depression (EDPS˃13) in pregnancy. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on maternal depression during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Given that gestational depression/anxiety/stress have been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, it is essential to continue following women/children, and develop strategies to reduce COVID-19’s longer-term impact.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mahgol Taghivand ◽  
Lisa G. Pell ◽  
Mohammed Z. Rahman ◽  
Abdullah A. Mahmud ◽  
Eric O. Ohuma ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of infant morbidity and death worldwide. Vitamin D promotes anti-pneumococcal immune responses in vitro, but whether improvements in infant vitamin D status modify risks of nasal pneumococcal acquisition in early life is not known. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data collected in a trial cohort in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) surveillance was conducted from 0 to 6 months of age among 1060 infants of women randomized to one of four pre/post-partum vitamin D dose combinations or placebo. Nasal swab samples were collected based on standardized ARI criteria, and pneumococcal DNA quantified by qPCR. Hazards ratios of pneumococcal acquisition and carriage dynamics were estimated using interval-censored survival and multi-state modelling. Results Pneumococcal carriage was detected at least once in 90% of infants by 6 months of age; overall, 69% of swabs were positive (2616/3792). There were no differences between any vitamin D group and placebo in the hazards of pneumococcal acquisition, carriage dynamics, or carriage density (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Despite in vitro data suggesting that vitamin D promoted immune responses against pneumococcus, improvements in postnatal vitamin D status did not reduce the rate, alter age of onset, or change dynamics of nasal pneumococcal colonization in early infancy. Trial registration Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number of NCT02388516 and first posted on March 17, 2015.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes ◽  
Sidney O. Ogolla ◽  
Ibrahim I. Daud ◽  
Conner Jackson ◽  
Katherine R. Sabourin ◽  
...  

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to be associated with EBV shedding in saliva suggesting an increased risk of EBV transmission to infants born to mothers with HIV at an earlier age. In this study we investigated (i) whether maternal HIV status was a risk factor for EBV in blood at delivery or for shedding in saliva and breast milk of 6- and 10-weeks post-partum mothers, (ii) if there was a difference in EBV strains shed between HIV+ and HIV- mothers, and (iii) if maternal HIV status was a determinant of EBV viral load in their infants. Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study that followed HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) pregnant women in Western Kenya through delivery and post-partum period. EBV viral load in blood was found to be significantly higher in mothers with HIV (p-value = 0.04). Additionally, a statistically significant difference was observed between EBV viral load in saliva samples and HIV status where HIV+ mothers had a higher EBV viral load in saliva at 6-weeks post-partum compared to HIV- mothers (p-value < 0.01). The difference in EBV shedding in breast milk was not found to be statistically significant. Furthermore, no difference in frequency of EBV strain was attributable to HIV- or HIV+ mothers. Interestingly, we found that infants born to HIV+ mothers had a higher EBV viral load at the time of their first EBV detection in blood than infants born to HIV- mothers and this was independent of age at detection. Overall, our study suggests that HIV infected mothers shed more virus in saliva than HIV-negative mothers and infants born to HIV+ mothers were at risk for loss of control of primary EBV infection as evidenced by higher EBV viral load following primary infection.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas Jamnik ◽  
Mira Flasch ◽  
Dominik Braun ◽  
Yasmin Fareed ◽  
Daniel Wasinger ◽  
...  

Exposure to man-made and natural chemicals is a major, yet not sufficiently considered, environmental risk factor in the etiology of chronic diseases. Current human biomonitoring approaches typically measure a limited number of exposures rather than investigating complex mixtures. The latter would be fundamental and necessary for a holistic assessment of chemical exposure in exposome-wide association studies. In this work, an highly-sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was developed and thoroughly-validated. The assay enables the simultaneous and targeted assessment of more than 80 highly-diverse xenobiotics in the investigated body fluids of urine, serum/plasma, and breast milk; the detection limit for most toxicants are in the pg-ng/mL range. In the plasma of extremely-premature infants (gestational age <28 weeks, birth weight <1 kg) a total of 27 different xenobiotics are identified; including severe contamination with synthetic plasticizers, perfluorinated alkylated substances and parabens. In an independent sample set of breast milk that was longitudinally collected over the first 211 days post-partum, a total of 29 analytes is detected, including the first-ever identification of pyrrolizidine- and tropane alkaloids in this matrix. Based on the generated data, a preliminary estimation of daily toxicant intake via breast milk is conducted. In conclusion, our proof-of-principle experiments show significant early-life co-exposure to multiple toxicants, and demonstrate the method’s applicability in future large-scale exposomics-type cohort studies in vulnerable populations.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Katie S. Offer ◽  
Catherine M. Russell ◽  
Joan B. Carrick ◽  
Caitlin E. Wallington ◽  
Lucy A. Cudmore ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huan-Yu Liu ◽  
Juanjuan Guo ◽  
Chang Zeng ◽  
Yuming Cao ◽  
Ruoxi Ran ◽  
...  

Background: Long-term effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on infants born to infected mothers are not clear. Fine motor skills are crucial for the development of infant emotional regulation, learning ability and social skills.Methods: Clinical information of 100 infants born to 98 mothers (COVID-19 n = 31, non-COVID-19 n = 67) were collected. Infants were follow-up up to 9 months post-partum. The placental tissues were examined for SARS-CoV-2 infection, pathological changes, cytokines, and mtDNA content.Results: Decreased placental oxygen and nutrient transport capacity were found in infected pregnant women. Increased IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were detected in trophoblast cells and maternal blood of COVID-19 placentas. Elevated early fine motor abnormal-ities and increased serum TNI (troponin I) levels at delivery were observed in infants born to mothers with COVID-19. Increased abnormal mitochondria and elevated mtDNA content were found in the placentas from infected mothers. The placental mtDNA content of three infants with abnormal DDST were increased by 4, 7, and 10%, respectively, compared to the mean of the COVID-19 group. The Maternal Vascular Malperfusion (MVM), elevated cytokines and increased placental mtDNA content in mothers with COVID-19 might be associated with transient early fine motor abnormalities in infants. These abnormalities are only temporary, and they could be corrected by daily training.Conclusions: Babies born to COVID-19 mothers with mild symptoms appeared to have little or no excess long-term risks of abnormal physical and neurobehavioral development as compared with the infants delivered by non-COVID-19 mothers.


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