Pulmonary Vein
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. 3666-3671
Neel Shroff ◽  
Woogsoon Choi ◽  
Javier Villanueva-Meyer ◽  
Diana M Palacio ◽  
Peeyush Bhargava

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 55-68
Svetla Dineva ◽  
Milko Stoyanov ◽  
Aneliya Partenova ◽  
Boyan Kunev ◽  
Victoria Stoyanova ◽  

Anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage in the left atrium are often found. Divergent results have been reported on the impact of variant anatomy on atrial fi brillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation. We aimed to study the frequency of different anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage and their relationship with documented recurrences of AF after ablation. Material and methods: A retrospective study of patients with AF in whom radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation was done after previously performed cardiac contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography. Clinical and procedural characteristics, type and frequency of anatomical variants of the veno-atrial junction and their association with AF recurrences were studied. Results: One hundred seventy-seven patients (112 men, 63.3%) with AF were studied, of which 148 (83.6%) with paroxysmal AF. Variant anatomy was found in 91 patients (51.4%). In 20.9% there was a common left trunk, in 23.2% – more or less than two right-sided veins, and in 7.3% – variations for both right and left veins. No differences in clinical and procedural characteristics were found between the groups with normal and variant anatomy. Recurrences of AF and their association with pulmonary venous anatomy were studied in 104 patients with follow-up ≥ 3 months. No signifi cant relation was found between the presence of variant anatomy and AF recurrences within the blinding period after ablation, OR = 0.864, 95% CI = 0.397 – 1.88, p = 0.843, nor afterwards, OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.5 – 2.5, p = 0.839. Cox regression analysis showed no differences in AF recurrence-free survival regardless of the anatomical variant of pulmonary venous drainage, HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.58 – 2.05, p = 0.779. Conclusion: In this local population of patients with AF, the incidence of variant pulmonary venous drainage is just over 50%. No association was found between variant anatomy and the rate of AF recurrences after fi rst pulmonary vein isolation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 31-42
Tchavdar Shalganov ◽  
Milko Stoyanov ◽  
Vassil Traykov

This study presents data from the national electronic registry BG-EPHY on electrophysiologic (EP) cardiac ablations in 2019 and 2020. Material and methods. This is a retrospective study of a full two-year sample of the BG-EPHY registry. Sex and age distribution of the patients, number of ablations, electroanatomic mapping (EAM), irrigated ablations, distribution of different types of arrhythmia, intraprocedural success and complications are presented. Results. In 2019 four EP laboratories performed 1033 ablations in 652 men (63.1%) and 381 women, incl. 12 pediatric ablations (1.2%). EAM was used in 46.7% of the procedures, irrigation catheter was used in 52.2%, and cryocatheter – in 0.5%. The most common procedure was pulmonary vein isolation, followed by ablation for AV nodal reentrant tachycardia and typical atrial fl utter. In 2020 fi ve EP laboratories performed 835 ablations in 508 men (60.8%) and 327 women, incl. 8 pediatric ablations (1%). EAM was used in 50.9% of the ablations, irrigation catheter – in 54.5%, and cryocatheter – in 3.8%. The most common procedure was again pulmonary vein isolation. Ablation of typical atrial fl utter was the second most frequently performed procedure, ahead of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. In 2020 the number of ablations of accessory pathways also distinctly dropped by 37%. In both years the acute success was over 98%, and the complications were less than 2%. Conclusion. The national registry of electrophysiology collects systematically and continuously basic data on all cardiac ablations performed in the country. The structure of the EP service is remarkably similar to other European countries. Acute success is very high, while intraprocedural complications are rare. In 2020 the number of the ablations dropped by 19% as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (20) ◽  
pp. 3279-3284
Shuichiro Matsumoto ◽  
Manabu Suzuki ◽  
Sachi Matsubayashi ◽  
Akinari Tsukada ◽  
Yusaku Kusaba ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (5) ◽  
pp. 678-686
A A Gaponov ◽  
M E Noskova ◽  
A A Iakimov

Aim. To determine the left atrial dimensions, their ratios and relationships that characterize anatomy for left atrium structure in the normal human adult using the model of the atrial end-diastolic phase. Methods. We studied 54 heart specimens of subjects aged 3588 years who died from non-cardiac causes. The atrial end-diastolic phase was modeled by filling a specimen fixed in 1% formalin with liquid silicone. After silicone hardened, we performed morphometric measurements by a caliper. The data were processed by using a cluster, correlation and variance analysis. For pairwise comparison, we used the MannWhitney U-test or a two-sided t-test. Results. The article presents mean, standard deviation, median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile and coefficients of variation for the length, width and sagittal size of the left atrium, as well as the values of the distances between the pulmonary vein orifices, which characterize the dimensions of the left atrium posterior wall. Based on the left atrial size differences and their ratios, the specimens were divided into three clusters. The first (n1=23) and second clusters (n2=10) were represented by hearts with a cubic atrium; the second group differed from the first in the larger size of the left atrium. The third cluster (n3=21) included the hearts in which the largest left atrium size was the width, so the shape of the atria resembled a parallelepiped. The typical number of the pulmonary vein ostia we found in 91% of the specimens. The posterior wall of the left atrium, with a common number and topography of the ostia, were rectangle or an unequal trapezium in shape. We analyzed correlations between the sizes of the heart, left atrium and its posterior wall. We concretized the conceptual apparatus concerning the nomenclature and terminology of the left atrium anatomical structures. Conclusion. Based on the size ratio, two shape variations of the left atrium body can be identified: cubic or parallelepiped; cubic atria can be divided into large and small; the co-directional dimensions of the left atrial body and its posterior wall showed the strongest correlations.

2021 ◽  
Christopher Joseph ◽  
Jacob Sherman ◽  
Alex Ro ◽  
Westby Fisher ◽  
Jose Nazari ◽  

Background: Active esophageal cooling is increasingly utilized as an alternative to luminal esophageal temperature (LET) monitoring for protection against thermal injury during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) when treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Published data demonstrate the efficacy of active cooling in reducing thermal injury, but impacts on procedural efficiency are not as well characterized. LET monitoring compels pauses in ablation due to heat stacking and temperature overheating alarms that in turn delay progress of the PVI procedure, whereas active esophageal cooling allows avoidance of this phenomenon. Objective: Measure the change in PVI procedure duration after implementation of active esophageal cooling as a protective measure against esophageal injury. Methods: We performed a retrospective review under IRB approval of patients with AF undergoing PVI between January 2018 to February 2020. For each patient, we recorded age, gender, and total procedure time. We then compared procedure times before and after the implementation of active esophageal cooling as a replacement for LET monitoring. Results: A total of 373 patients received PVI over the study period. LET monitoring using a multi-sensor probe was performed in 198 patients, and active esophageal cooling using a dedicated device was performed in 175 patients. Patient characteristics did not significantly differ between groups (mean age of 67 years, and gender 37.4% female). Mean procedure time was 146 minutes in the LET monitored patients, and 110 minutes in the actively cooled patients, representing a reduction of 36 minutes, or 24.7% (p<.001). Median procedure time was 141 minutes in the LET monitored patients and 100 minutes in the actively cooled patients, for a reduction of 41 minutes, or 29.1% (p<.001). Conclusions: Implementation of active esophageal cooling for protection against esophageal injury during PVI was associated with a significantly large reduction in procedure duration.

Enida Rexha ◽  
Christian Heeger ◽  
Sabrina Maack ◽  
Laura Rottner ◽  
Peter Wohlmuth ◽  

Background: Cryoballoon (CB) based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has proven to be as effective as radiofrequency (RF) based ablation. Different ablation protocols took the individual time-to-isolation (TTI) into account aiming at shorter but equally or even more effective freeze-cycles. The current study sought to assess the impact of the TTI on PVI durability in patients undergoing a repeat procedure for recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA). Methods and Results: In 205 patients with ATA recurrence after previous CB-based PVI a total of 806 PVs were identified. One hundred-twenty-six out of 806 PVs (16%) were previously treated with a TTI guided ablation (protocol #1; TTI+120 sec.), in 92/806 (11%) PVs TTI was only monitored (m) but fixed freeze-cycles were applied (protocol #2; mTTI) and in 588/806 (73%) a fixed freeze-cycle was applied without TTI-monitoring. There was no difference in the PV-reconduction rate between the groups (P=0.23). The right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) showed overall significantly higher reconduction rates compared to the other PVs (RIPV – left inferior PV (LIPV) p<0.003, -left superior PV (LSPV) p<0.001, - right superior PV RSPV p<0.013). In 21 patients (10%) only for the RIPV reconduction was assessed. Conclusions: TTI based CB ablation did not show significant differences regarding PV-reconduction rates compared to the other protocols.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Karapet V. Davtyan ◽  
Arpi H. Topchyan ◽  
Hakob A. Brutyan ◽  
Elena N. Kalemberg ◽  
Maria S. Kharlap ◽  

Abstract Background Early recurrences of atrial arrhythmias (ERAA) after atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation do not predict procedural failure. A well-demarcated homogeneous lesion delivered by cryoballoon is less arrhythmogenic, and the recommended three-months blanking period may not refer to cryoballoon ablation (CBA). Objective We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of ERAA after second-generation CBA using an implantable loop recorder. Methods This prospective observational study enrolled 100 patients (58 males, median age 58) with paroxysmal/persistent AF undergoing pulmonary vein (PV) CBA using second-generation cryoballoon with simultaneous ECG loop recorder implantation. The duration of follow-up was 12 months, with scheduled visits at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results 99 patients from 100 completed the 12-month follow-up period. ERAA occurred in 31.3 % of patients. 83.9 % of patients with ERAA also developed late recurrences. The 12-month freedom from AF in patients with ERAA was significantly lower than in those without ERAA (p < 0.0001). Non-paroxysmal AF and longer arrhythmia history were associated with increased risk of both early (HR 3.27; 95 % CI 1.32–8.08; p = 0.010 and HR 1.0147; 95 % CI 1.008–1.086; p = 0.015, respectively) and late recurrences (HR 3.89; 95 % CI 1.67–9.04; p = 0.002 and HR 1.0142; 95 % CI 1.007–1.078; p = 0.019, respectively) of AF. ERAA were another predictor for procedural failure (HR 15.2; 95 % CI (6.42–35.99; p = 0.019). Conclusions ERAA occurred in the third of the patients after PV second-generation CBA and are strongly associated with procedural failure. Longer duration of AF history and persistent AF are independent predictors of AF’s early and late recurrence.

Shota Tohoku ◽  
Stefano Bordignon ◽  
Fabrizio Bologna ◽  
Shaojie Chen ◽  
Lukas Urbanek ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Seil Oh ◽  
Yoon Ha Joo ◽  
Euijae Lee ◽  
So-Ryoung Lee ◽  
Myung-Jin Cha ◽  

Abstract Background The major cause of recurrence after pulmonary vein (PV) isolation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is PV reconnection, and thicker wall could be associated with reconnection. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the wall thickness of the PV antrum in reconnection sites using a three-dimensional (3D) wall thickness map. Methods A total of 91 patients who underwent a second ablation procedure due to AF recurrence were evaluated. The locations of the PV reconnection sites were confirmed in electroanatomical maps. A 3D atrial wall thickness (AWT) map was created using computed tomography scan data. The AWT values of the ablation lines of the index procedure were graded in each segment of the PV antrum: grade 1, 0.5 < AWT ≤ 1.0 mm; grade 2, 1.0 < AWT ≤ 1.5 mm; grade 3, 1.5 < AWT ≤ 2.0 mm; grade 4, 2.0 < AWT ≤ 2.5 mm; grade 5, AWT > 2.5 mm. Results A total of 281 PV reconnection sites among 1256 segments of the PV antrum in 79 patients were detected. The average AWT grades were 2.7 ± 1.0 and 2.2 ± 1.0 in the reconnected and non-reconnected segments, respectively (P < 0.01). Higher AWT grades were observed in the reconnected superior segments of the left superior PV, carina and inferior segments of the left inferior PV, superior and posterior segments of the right superior PV, and posterior and inferior segments of the right inferior PV. Conclusion The reconnected segments of the PV antrum showed thicker myocardium than the non-reconnected ones in patients with recurrent AF after catheter ablation. A wall thickness map for PV isolation could be considered for customized ablation in order to reduce PV reconnection.

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