Pulmonary Vein Isolation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 55-68
Author(s):  
Svetla Dineva ◽  
Milko Stoyanov ◽  
Aneliya Partenova ◽  
Boyan Kunev ◽  
Victoria Stoyanova ◽  
...  

Anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage in the left atrium are often found. Divergent results have been reported on the impact of variant anatomy on atrial fi brillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation. We aimed to study the frequency of different anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage and their relationship with documented recurrences of AF after ablation. Material and methods: A retrospective study of patients with AF in whom radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation was done after previously performed cardiac contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography. Clinical and procedural characteristics, type and frequency of anatomical variants of the veno-atrial junction and their association with AF recurrences were studied. Results: One hundred seventy-seven patients (112 men, 63.3%) with AF were studied, of which 148 (83.6%) with paroxysmal AF. Variant anatomy was found in 91 patients (51.4%). In 20.9% there was a common left trunk, in 23.2% – more or less than two right-sided veins, and in 7.3% – variations for both right and left veins. No differences in clinical and procedural characteristics were found between the groups with normal and variant anatomy. Recurrences of AF and their association with pulmonary venous anatomy were studied in 104 patients with follow-up ≥ 3 months. No signifi cant relation was found between the presence of variant anatomy and AF recurrences within the blinding period after ablation, OR = 0.864, 95% CI = 0.397 – 1.88, p = 0.843, nor afterwards, OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.5 – 2.5, p = 0.839. Cox regression analysis showed no differences in AF recurrence-free survival regardless of the anatomical variant of pulmonary venous drainage, HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.58 – 2.05, p = 0.779. Conclusion: In this local population of patients with AF, the incidence of variant pulmonary venous drainage is just over 50%. No association was found between variant anatomy and the rate of AF recurrences after fi rst pulmonary vein isolation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 31-42
Author(s):  
Tchavdar Shalganov ◽  
Milko Stoyanov ◽  
Vassil Traykov

This study presents data from the national electronic registry BG-EPHY on electrophysiologic (EP) cardiac ablations in 2019 and 2020. Material and methods. This is a retrospective study of a full two-year sample of the BG-EPHY registry. Sex and age distribution of the patients, number of ablations, electroanatomic mapping (EAM), irrigated ablations, distribution of different types of arrhythmia, intraprocedural success and complications are presented. Results. In 2019 four EP laboratories performed 1033 ablations in 652 men (63.1%) and 381 women, incl. 12 pediatric ablations (1.2%). EAM was used in 46.7% of the procedures, irrigation catheter was used in 52.2%, and cryocatheter – in 0.5%. The most common procedure was pulmonary vein isolation, followed by ablation for AV nodal reentrant tachycardia and typical atrial fl utter. In 2020 fi ve EP laboratories performed 835 ablations in 508 men (60.8%) and 327 women, incl. 8 pediatric ablations (1%). EAM was used in 50.9% of the ablations, irrigation catheter – in 54.5%, and cryocatheter – in 3.8%. The most common procedure was again pulmonary vein isolation. Ablation of typical atrial fl utter was the second most frequently performed procedure, ahead of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. In 2020 the number of ablations of accessory pathways also distinctly dropped by 37%. In both years the acute success was over 98%, and the complications were less than 2%. Conclusion. The national registry of electrophysiology collects systematically and continuously basic data on all cardiac ablations performed in the country. The structure of the EP service is remarkably similar to other European countries. Acute success is very high, while intraprocedural complications are rare. In 2020 the number of the ablations dropped by 19% as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher Joseph ◽  
Jacob Sherman ◽  
Alex Ro ◽  
Westby Fisher ◽  
Jose Nazari ◽  
...  

Background: Active esophageal cooling is increasingly utilized as an alternative to luminal esophageal temperature (LET) monitoring for protection against thermal injury during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) when treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Published data demonstrate the efficacy of active cooling in reducing thermal injury, but impacts on procedural efficiency are not as well characterized. LET monitoring compels pauses in ablation due to heat stacking and temperature overheating alarms that in turn delay progress of the PVI procedure, whereas active esophageal cooling allows avoidance of this phenomenon. Objective: Measure the change in PVI procedure duration after implementation of active esophageal cooling as a protective measure against esophageal injury. Methods: We performed a retrospective review under IRB approval of patients with AF undergoing PVI between January 2018 to February 2020. For each patient, we recorded age, gender, and total procedure time. We then compared procedure times before and after the implementation of active esophageal cooling as a replacement for LET monitoring. Results: A total of 373 patients received PVI over the study period. LET monitoring using a multi-sensor probe was performed in 198 patients, and active esophageal cooling using a dedicated device was performed in 175 patients. Patient characteristics did not significantly differ between groups (mean age of 67 years, and gender 37.4% female). Mean procedure time was 146 minutes in the LET monitored patients, and 110 minutes in the actively cooled patients, representing a reduction of 36 minutes, or 24.7% (p<.001). Median procedure time was 141 minutes in the LET monitored patients and 100 minutes in the actively cooled patients, for a reduction of 41 minutes, or 29.1% (p<.001). Conclusions: Implementation of active esophageal cooling for protection against esophageal injury during PVI was associated with a significantly large reduction in procedure duration.


Author(s):  
Enida Rexha ◽  
Christian Heeger ◽  
Sabrina Maack ◽  
Laura Rottner ◽  
Peter Wohlmuth ◽  
...  

Background: Cryoballoon (CB) based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has proven to be as effective as radiofrequency (RF) based ablation. Different ablation protocols took the individual time-to-isolation (TTI) into account aiming at shorter but equally or even more effective freeze-cycles. The current study sought to assess the impact of the TTI on PVI durability in patients undergoing a repeat procedure for recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA). Methods and Results: In 205 patients with ATA recurrence after previous CB-based PVI a total of 806 PVs were identified. One hundred-twenty-six out of 806 PVs (16%) were previously treated with a TTI guided ablation (protocol #1; TTI+120 sec.), in 92/806 (11%) PVs TTI was only monitored (m) but fixed freeze-cycles were applied (protocol #2; mTTI) and in 588/806 (73%) a fixed freeze-cycle was applied without TTI-monitoring. There was no difference in the PV-reconduction rate between the groups (P=0.23). The right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) showed overall significantly higher reconduction rates compared to the other PVs (RIPV – left inferior PV (LIPV) p<0.003, -left superior PV (LSPV) p<0.001, - right superior PV RSPV p<0.013). In 21 patients (10%) only for the RIPV reconduction was assessed. Conclusions: TTI based CB ablation did not show significant differences regarding PV-reconduction rates compared to the other protocols.


Author(s):  
Shota Tohoku ◽  
Stefano Bordignon ◽  
Fabrizio Bologna ◽  
Shaojie Chen ◽  
Lukas Urbanek ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Rubén Molero ◽  
José Manuel Soler Torro ◽  
Nieves Martínez Alzamora ◽  
Andreu M. Climent ◽  
María S. Guillem

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_E) ◽  
pp. E51-E54
Author(s):  
Diego Penela ◽  
Riccardo Cappato

Abstract Pulmonary vein isolation is the standard for atrial fibrillation ablation. Although the most commonly applied energy source is radiofrequency (RF), cryoablation has rapidly evolved as a powerful one-shot tool, particularly after the introduction of the second-generation catheter, gaining widespread use in recent years. The efficacy in maintaining sinus rhythm after a first ablative procedure is ∼70–80%, and the randomization studies comparing cryoablation to RF have not been able to reveal significant differences up to now. Although different baseline characteristics may influence the efficacy of cryoablation, we are not yet able to distinguish which patients may benefit from a personalized choice of ablative source. Regarding safety, cryoballoon ablation appears to be associated with a lower rate of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade, mainly due to the lack of risk of overheating. The other side of the coin is a higher incidence of phrenic nerve damage, which occurs in 1–2% of procedures. In conclusion, we do not yet have definitive data to affirm the superiority of the RF technique over that of cryoablation. The choice of energy source currently depends on the availability of the centre and on the experience of the operator.


Author(s):  
David Chieng ◽  
Hariharan Sugumar ◽  
Liang-Han Ling ◽  
Louise Segan ◽  
Sonia Azzopardi ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_E) ◽  
pp. E177-E183
Author(s):  
Francesco Versaci ◽  
Sebastiano Sciarretta ◽  
Massimiliano Scappaticci ◽  
Riccardo Di Pietro ◽  
Simone Calcagno ◽  
...  

Abstract Renal denervation (RDN) is a therapeutic strategy for patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension characterized by considerable fluctuations during its progression. After initial strong enthusiasm, the procedure came to an abrupt halt following the publication of the Symplicity HTN-3 study results. The results of recently published studies highlight the reduction in blood pressure values after RDN and justify the inclusion in the Guidelines of new recommendations for the use of RDN in clinical practice, in selected patients. Additionally, RDN findings are summarized in view of other potential indications such as atrial fibrillation. Six prospective, randomized studies are presented that evaluated RDN as an adjunct therapy to pulmonary vein isolation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. In five studies, patients had uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy with three antihypertensive drugs. The analysis of these studies showed that RDN reduced the recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) by 57% compared to patients with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) only. Modulation of the autonomic nervous system by RDN has been shown not only to reduce blood pressure but also to have an antiarrhythmic effect in symptomatic AF patients when the strategy is combined with PVI, thus opening up new therapeutic scenarios.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 995
Author(s):  
Philipp S. Lange ◽  
Christian Wenning ◽  
Nemanja Avramovic ◽  
Patrick Leitz ◽  
Robert Larbig ◽  
...  

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and antiarrhythmic drug therapy are established treatment strategies to preserve sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the efficacy of both interventional and pharmaceutical therapy is still limited. Solid evidence suggests an important role of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in AF. In this blinded, prospective observational study, we studied left ventricular cardiac sympathetic activity in patients treated with PVI and with antiarrhythmic drugs. Prospectively, Iodine-123-benzyl-guanidine single photon emission computer tomography (123I-mIBG-SPECT) was performed in a total of 23 patients with paroxysmal AF, who underwent PVI (n = 20) or received antiarrhythmic drug therapy only (n = 3), respectively. 123I-mIBG planar and SPECT/CT scans were performed before and 4 to 8 weeks after PVI (or initiation of drug therapy, respectively). For semiquantitative SPECT image analysis, attenuation-corrected early/late images were analyzed. Quantitative SPECT analysis was performed using the AHA 17-segment model of the left ventricle. Results: PVI with point-by-point radiofrequency ablation led to a significantly (p < 0.05) higher visual sympathetic innervation defect score when comparing pre-and post PVI. Newly emerging innervation deficits post PVI were localized predominantly in the inferior lateral wall. These findings were corroborated by semiquantitative SPECT analysis identifying inferolateral segments with a reduced tracer uptake in comparison to SPECT before PVI. Following PVI, patients with an AF relapse showed a different sympathetic innervation pattern compared to patients with sufficient rhythm control. Conclusions: PVI results in novel defects of cardiac sympathetic innervation. Differences in cardiac sympathetic innervation remodelling following PVI suggest an important role of the cardiac autonomous nervous system in the maintenance of sinus rhythm following PVI.


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