Atrial Fibrillation
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2021 ◽  
Yue Yu ◽  
Suyu Wang ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Qiumeng Xu ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF). Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has been proved to be a reliable predictor of many inflammation-associated diseases, but little data are available on the relationship between LMR and AF. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of LMR in predicting all-cause mortality among AF patients. Methods Data of patients diagnosed with AF were retrieved from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III (MIMIC-III) database. X-tile analysis was used to calculate the optimal cutoff value for LMR. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to assess the association of LMR and 28-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality. Additionally, a propensity score matching (PSM) method was performed to minimize the impact of potential confounders. Results A total of 3,567 patients hospitalized with AF were enrolled in this study. The X-tile software indicated that the optimal cutoff value of LMR was 2.67. A total of 1,127 pairs were generated and all the covariates were well balanced after PSM. The Cox proportional-hazards model showed that patients with the low LMR (≤ 2.67) had a higher 1-year all-cause mortality than those with the high LMR (> 2.67) in the study cohort before PSM (HR = 1.640, 95% CI: 1.437–1.872, P < 0.001) and after PSM (HR = 1.279, 95% CI: 1.094–1.495, P = 0.002). The multivariable Cox regression analysis for 28-day and 90-day mortality yielded similar results. Conclusions The lower LMR (≤ 2.67) was associated with a higher risk of 28-day, 90-day, and 1-year all-cause mortality, which might serve as an independent prognostic predictor in AF patients.

Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-319702
Ofra Barnett-Griness ◽  
Nili Stein ◽  
Antonio Kotler ◽  
Walid Saliba ◽  
Naomi Gronich

ObjectiveClinical models such as the HAS-BLED (standing for Hypertension, Abnormal liver/renal function, Stroke history, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drug/alcohol usage) were developed to predict risk of major bleeding on vitamin K antagonists/antiplatelet therapy. We aimed to develop a model that will improve the ability to predict major bleeding events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with new oral anticoagulants (NOACs).MethodsClalit Health Services is the largest of four integrated healthcare organisations in Israel, which insures 4.7 million patients (53% of the population). We identified in Clalit Health Services all patients with AF, new users of an NOAC (2013–2017), and followed them until first occurrence of a major bleeding event, death, switch to another oral anticoagulant, 30 days after discontinuation of NOAC or end of follow-up (31 December 2019). Importance of the candidate model variables was estimated by inclusion frequencies across forward selection algorithm applied to 50 bootstrap samples. Then, backward selection algorithm using the modified Bayesian Information Criterion for competing risks was applied to select predictors for the final model.Results47 623 patients with AF prescribed NOAC were studied. 28 055 patients with AF, initiators of apixaban (mean age 78.7, SD 9.0), were included in the first phase and had 662 major bleeding events. Nine variables were selected for inclusion in a final points-based risk-scoring system: male sex, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia (<99×103/µL), concurrent antiplatelet therapy, hypertension, prior major bleeding, risk factors for a fall, low cholesterol level and low estimated glomerular filtration rate, with apparent area-under-curve (AUC) of 0.6546. Applicability of the model was then shown for 14 118 and 5450 patients with AF, initiators of dabigatran and rivaroxaban, where the score achieved c indices of 0.62 and 0.61, respectively.ConclusionsWe present a novel and simple risk score for prediction of major bleeding in patients with non-valvular AF treated with NOACs. Validation in additional cohorts is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Man Ki Kwok ◽  
Catherine Mary Schooling

AbstractAtrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with numerous diseases. However, whether AF is a cause or consequence of these diseases is uncertain. To clarify, we assessed the causal role of AF on ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, other cardiovascular disease (CVD) subtypes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and late-onset AD using bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) among people primarily of European descent. Genetically predicted log odds of AF was associated with any stroke (odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.27), particularly cardioembolic stroke and possibly subdural hemorrhage, with sensitivity analyses showing similar positive findings. Genetically predicted AF was also associated with arterial thromboembolism (1.32, 1.13 to 1.53), and heart failure (1.26, 1.21 to 1.30). No association of genetically predicted AF with IHD, T2DM, cognitive function, or late-onset AD was found. Conversely, genetically predicted IHD, heart failure and possibly ischemic stroke, particularly cardioembolic stroke, were positively associated with AF. Atrial fibrillation plays a role in any stroke, arterial thromboembolism, and heart failure, corroborating current clinical guidelines on the importance of preventing these complications by effective AF management. In addition, patients with IHD, heart failure or possibly ischemic stroke might be predisposed to developing AF, with implications for management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xuying Ye ◽  
Shangzhong Liu ◽  
Huijuan Yin ◽  
Qiang He ◽  
Zhixiao Xue ◽  

Pulsed-field ablation (PFA) had potential advantages in atrial fibrillation ablation, and we aim to confirm the optimal parameter and target of PFA for atrial fibrillation. Two ablation modes in vitro of single-cell system (ablation in electrode cup) and monolayer cell system (ablation in inserts with electrode tips) were established to perform PFA for myocardial cell H9C2 and smooth muscle cell A7r5. Ablation effect, calcium ion influx, the expression of Cx45, and surface morphological change were observed. Three Bama minipigs were used to verify the in vivo ablation effect of PFA. In monolayer cell system, H9C2 was significantly sensitive to PFA compared with A7r5, with shrinking of the whole monolayer. The ablation effect of bidirectional pulse was weaker than that of the two mono-polar pulses. Expressed Cx45 proteins were increased in H9C2 but decreased in A7r5 cells. Bidirectional PFA performed on Bama minipigs was able to effectively block electrical activity from the pulmonary vein to the atrium with week muscle contraction, not generating pulmonary vein stenosis. Bidirectional PFA was able to significantly ablate myocardial cells, maintain cell–cell connection, and reduce muscle contraction, which was a kind of optimized PFA strategy for atrial fibrillation.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2501
Anirudh Krishnan ◽  
Emily Chilton ◽  
Jaishankar Raman ◽  
Pankaj Saxena ◽  
Craig McFarlane ◽  

Atrial fibrillation is very common among the elderly and/or obese. While myocardial fibrosis is associated with atrial fibrillation, the exact mechanisms within atrial myocytes and surrounding non-myocytes are not fully understood. This review considers the potential roles of myocardial fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in fibrosis and modulating myocyte electrophysiology through electrotonic interactions. Coupling with (myo)fibroblasts in vitro and in silico prolonged myocyte action potential duration and caused resting depolarization; an optogenetic study has verified in vivo that fibroblasts depolarized when coupled myocytes produced action potentials. This review also introduces another non-myocyte which may modulate both myocardial (myo)fibroblasts and myocytes: epicardial adipose tissue. Epicardial adipocytes are in intimate contact with myocytes and (myo)fibroblasts and may infiltrate the myocardium. Adipocytes secrete numerous adipokines which modulate (myo)fibroblast and myocyte physiology. These adipokines are protective in healthy hearts, preventing inflammation and fibrosis. However, adipokines secreted from adipocytes may switch to pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic, associated with reactive oxygen species generation. Pro-fibrotic adipokines stimulate myofibroblast differentiation, causing pronounced fibrosis in the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium. Adipose tissue also influences myocyte electrophysiology, via the adipokines and/or through electrotonic interactions. Deeper understanding of the interactions between myocytes and non-myocytes is important to understand and manage atrial fibrillation.

Astrid N. L. Hermans ◽  
Monika Gawalko ◽  
Lisa Dohmen ◽  
Rachel M. J. van der Velden ◽  
Konstanze Betz ◽  

Abstract Aim We aimed to systematically review the available literature on mobile Health (mHealth) solutions, including handheld and wearable devices, implantable loop recorders (ILRs), as well as mobile platforms and support systems in atrial fibrillation (AF) detection and management. Methods This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The electronic databases PubMed (NCBI), Embase (Ovid), and Cochrane were searched for articles published until 10 February 2021, inclusive. Given that the included studies varied widely in their design, interventions, comparators, and outcomes, no synthesis was undertaken, and we undertook a narrative review. Results We found 208 studies, which were deemed potentially relevant. Of these studies included, 82, 46, and 49 studies aimed at validating handheld devices, wearables, and ILRs for AF detection and/or management, respectively, while 34 studies assessed mobile platforms/support systems. The diagnostic accuracy of mHealth solutions differs with respect to the type (handheld devices vs wearables vs ILRs) and technology used (electrocardiography vs photoplethysmography), as well as application setting (intermittent vs continuous, spot vs longitudinal assessment), and study population. Conclusion While the use of mHealth solutions in the detection and management of AF is becoming increasingly popular, its clinical implications merit further investigation and several barriers to widespread mHealth adaption in healthcare systems need to be overcome. Graphic abstract Mobile health solutions for atrial fibrillation detection and management: a systematic review.

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