third trimester
Recently Published Documents





Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Lianbin Xu ◽  
Jia Zeng ◽  
Huanan Wang ◽  
Hongyun Liu

Abnormal arginine metabolism contributes to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which increase the health burden of mothers and induce adverse birth outcomes. However, associations between maternal arginine concentration and different pregnancy complications have not been systematically compared. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications to evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma arginine concentration in complicated pregnancies. Standardized mean difference (SMD) of the arginine concentration was pooled by a random effects model. The results show that increased maternal arginine concentrations were observed in IUGR (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.76; I2 = 47.0%) and GDM (SMD: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.81; I2 = 82.3%) cases but not in PE patients (SMD: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.04, 0.47; I2 = 80.3%) compared with the normal cohorts. Subgroup analyses indicated that the non-fasting circulating arginine concentration in third trimester was increased significantly in GDM and severe IUGR pregnancies, but the change mode was dependent on ethnicity. Additionally, only severe PE persons were accompanied by higher plasma arginine concentrations. These findings suggest that maternal arginine concentration is an important reference for assessing the development of pregnancy complications.

2022 ◽  
pp. 201010582110685
Cassandra Chan ◽  
Shi Hui Poon ◽  
Tze-Ern Chua ◽  
Nurul Syaza Razali ◽  
Kok Hian Tan ◽  

Objective Poor sleep and depression are common problems during pregnancy, but there has been little investigation into the association between them. This prospective study aims to examine the relationship between sleep quality and depression during pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women under 14 weeks’ gestation attending routine outpatient antenatal care in Singapore’s largest maternity hospital were recruited between 2012 and 2014. Women with multiple pregnancies and deemed at high risk of miscarriage were excluded. Six hundred and forty participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the three trimesters during pregnancy. Results Mean PSQI score was highest in the third visit, suggesting poorer quality sleep in the late third trimester compared to other trimesters. 15.6% of participants at each time point fulfilled the criteria for antenatal depression according to the EPDS cut-off score > 14. PSQI scores were significantly correlated with EPDS scores, and also prospectively predicted EPDS scores in all three trimesters. Conclusion Sleep quality in Singaporean pregnant women was poorest in the third trimester, and was associated with the development of depressive symptoms. With more than 1 in 10 women having antenatal depression, interventions targeting sleep quality might be particularly beneficial.

Fahimeh Ranjbar ◽  
Catja Warmelink ◽  
Robab Mousavi ◽  
Maryam Gharacheh

Background: Pregnancy through assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a stressful experience that may affect prenatal attachment. However, maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) and anxiety in pregnancy after ART are understudied in Iran. Objective: To compare changes in MFA and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) in the first and third trimester of pregnancy in women who conceived through ART compared to those who conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in 2019 with 187 pregnant women (ART conception = 43, natural conception = 144). Participants were recruited using the consecutive sampling method from a prenatal clinic in Tehran. The Cranley MFA Scale and the Van Den Bergh PRA Questionnaire were used to collect the data. Results: The MFA score in the 12th wk of gestation was lower in the women who conceived with ART compared to in the women who conceived naturally, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in wk 36. MFA in both groups was significantly higher at gestational wk 36 than wk 12 (p ≤ 0.001). The increase in MFA score was significantly higher in the women who conceived with ART than in those who conceived naturally (p ≤ 0.001). The anxiety score declined in the two groups and no statistically significant difference was observed in the changes of anxiety scores between the two groups (p = 0.84). Conclusion: Pregnant women who conceived through ART were as attached to their fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy as other women and did not experience more PRA. Key words: Attachment, Maternal fetal relations, Assisted reproductive technology, Pregnancy, Anxiety.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lili Yang ◽  
Huan Wang ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  
Min Zhao ◽  
Yajun Guo ◽  

Abstract Background The associations of maternal cigarette smoking with congenital anomalies in offspring have been inconsistent. This study aimed to clarify the associations of the timing and intensity of maternal cigarette smoking with 12 subtypes of birth congenital anomalies based on a nationwide large birth cohort in the USA. Methods We used nationwide birth certificate data from the US National Vital Statistics System during 2016–2019. Women reported the average daily number of cigarettes they consumed 3 months before pregnancy and in each subsequent trimester during pregnancy. Twelve subtypes of congenital anomalies were identified in medical records. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 12 subtypes of congenital anomalies associated with the timing (i.e., before pregnancy, and during three different trimesters of pregnancy) and intensity (i.e., number of cigarettes consumed per day) of maternal cigarette smoking. Results Among the 12,144,972 women included, 9.3% smoked before pregnancy and 7.0%, 6.0%, and 5.7% in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Maternal smoking before or during pregnancy significantly increased the risk of six subtypes of birth congenital anomalies (i.e., congenital diaphragmatic hernia, gastroschisis, limb reduction defect, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone, and hypospadias), even as low as 1–5 cigarettes per day. The adjusted RRs (95% CIs) for overall birth congenital anomalies (defined as having any one of the congenital malformations above significantly associated with maternal cigarette smoking) among women who smoked 1–5, 6–10, and ≥ 11 cigarettes per day before pregnancy were 1.31 (1.22–1.41), 1.25 (1.17–1.33), and 1.35 (1.28–1.43), respectively. Corresponding values were 1.23 (1.14–1.33), 1.33 (1.24–1.42), 1.33 (1.23–1.43), respectively, for women who smoked cigarettes in the first trimester; 1.32 (1.21–1.44), 1.36 (1.26–1.47), and 1.38 (1.23–1.54), respectively, for women who smoked cigarettes in the second trimester; and 1.33 (1.22–1.44), 1.35 (1.24–1.47), and 1.35 (1.19–1.52), respectively, for women who smoked cigarettes in the third trimester. Compared with women who kept smoking before and throughout pregnancy, women who never smoked had significantly lower risk of congenital anomalies (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.73–0.81), but women who smoked before pregnancy and quitted during each trimester of pregnancy had no reduced risk (all P > 0.05). Conclusions Maternal smoking before or during pregnancy increased the risk of several birth congenital anomalies, even as low as 1–5 cigarettes per day. Maternal smokers who stopped smoking in the subsequent trimesters of pregnancy were still at an increased risk of birth congenital anomalies. Our findings highlighted that smoking cessation interventions should be implemented before pregnancy.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Ioannis Kakoulidis ◽  
Costas Thomopoulos ◽  
Ioannis Ilias ◽  
Stefanos Stergiotis ◽  
Stefanos Togias ◽  

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Alpha-methyl-DOPA (αMD) is a commonly used medication for hypertension in pregnant women. This medication may be associated with alteration in insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate in 152 pregnant women whether the demands of exogenous insulin in glucocorticoid-treated women during pregnancy are different between those with GDM and hypertension treated with αMD and those without hypertension. In the group of women with GDM under insulin treatment, who received αMD for hypertension, the increase in insulin needs was relatively lower by at least 30% of the pre-admission insulin dose compared to all of the remaining women not receiving αMD in the same group (9 women vs. 50 women, p = 0.035). Our work raises the hypothesis that αMD can favorably modulate insulin sensitivity in the third trimester of pregnancy in previously insulin-treated women with gestational diabetes who receive glucocorticoids.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Seçil Karaca Kurtulmus ◽  
Ebru Sahin Gülec ◽  
Mustafa Sengül

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether the third trimester fetal cardiac diastolic function measured by selected conventional Doppler indices is affected in appropriate-for-gestational-age or macrosomic fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers with poor glycaemic control. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 93 pregnant women divided into two groups. Group 1 included 45 appropriate-for-gestational-age or macrosomic fetuses from gestational diabetic mothers with poor glycaemic control (study group). Group 2 included 48 appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses from gestational age-matched healthy mothers (control group). Functional fetal cardiac parameters and fetoplacental Doppler parameters were measured. Data were compared between the two groups. Results: Maternal characteristics did not differ significantly between the study and the control group. There were no significant differences in the early and late velocity, early/late velocity ratio of both mitral and tricuspid valves, the fetal pulmonary vein pulsatility index, and the ductus venosus pulsatility index between the study and the control group. Moreover, the rate of abnormal Doppler findings in pulmonary vein (pulmonary vein pulsatility index >95th centile), ductus venosus (ductus venosus pulsatility index >95th centile), and peripheral vessels (umbilical artery pulsatility index >95th centile, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index <5th centile, cerebra-placental index >95th centile) were comparable in both groups. Conclusions: The third trimester fetal diastolic functions measured by selected conventional Doppler techniques do not seem to be altered in appropriate-for-gestational-age or macrosomic fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers who have poor glycaemic control.

Marta Makara-Studzińska ◽  
Kornelia Zaręba ◽  
Natalia Kawa ◽  
Dorota Matuszyk

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus emerged in the world at the end of 2019. The introduction of a number of restrictions had a significant effect on numerous aspects of human life with particular influence being exerted on pregnant women and their sense of security. The study aimed to assess the level of anxiety and its main determinants in women in the third trimester of pregnancy during the coronavirus pandemic. The study technique included the present purposely designed questionnaire, Labor Anxiety Questionnaire (KLPII), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The study was conducted in a group of 315 women in the third trimester of pregnancy. A total of 258 women (81.9%) completed the questionnaire in May 2020, and 57 of them (18.1%) completed it in October 2020. The overall analysis of the Labor Anxiety Questionnaire and the STAI inventory revealed a high level of anxiety, particularly situational anxiety, in pregnant women during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The age and financial status of the women were the factors which contributed to the intensification of tokophobia. Women interviewed in October 2020 were characterized by higher tokophobia levels compared to the respondents included in May 2020. It seems justified to in-crease the vigilance in the diagnostics of possible mental disorders in the perinatal period during pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Keisuke Miyamoto ◽  
Hiroaki Komatsu ◽  
Masayo Okawa ◽  
Yuki Iida ◽  
Daiken Osaku ◽  

Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism often develops after surgery and childbirth, resulting in death in some cases. Although early deep vein thrombosis (DVT) detection can predict pulmonary thromboembolism, there is no early screening method for DVT in pregnant women. Lack of consensus regarding significance or setting and cut-off value interpretation of D-dimer levels further impedes venous thromboembolism screening in pregnant women. This study aimed to examine the utility of third-trimester serum D-dimer levels as a screening test for DVT during pregnancy and to determine the frequency of asymptomatic DVT using lower-limb compression ultrasonography. Methods This single-center retrospective study included 497 pregnant women who underwent elective cesarean section at term in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2019. Serum D-dimer levels were preoperatively measured at 32–37 weeks’ gestation. The presence or absence of DVT in patients with serum D-dimer levels ≥ 3.0 µg/ml, the cut-off value, was examined using compression ultrasonography. In all patients, the presence or absence of clinical venous thrombosis (symptoms such as lower-limb pain, swelling, and heat sensation) was examined within 4 postoperative weeks. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Guideline 2015 was referred to determine risk factors for the onset of venous thrombosis during pregnancy. Among those, we examined the risk factors for DVT that result in high D-dimer levels during pregnancy. Results The median age and body mass index were 35 (20–47) years and 21.2 (16.4–41.1) kg/m2, respectively. Further, the median gestational age and D-dimer levels were 37 weeks and 2.1 (0.2–16.0) µg/ml, respectively. Compression ultrasonography was performed on 135 (26.5%) patients with a D-dimer level ≥ 3.0 µg/ml, with none of the patients showing DVT. All patients were followed up for 4 postoperative weeks, with none presenting with venous thromboembolism. Multivariate analysis showed that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism that causes high D-dimer levels (odds ratio: 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.05–6.50, P = 0.04). Conclusion There may be low utility in screening for DVT using D-dimer levels in the third trimester. Further, prepartum asymptomatic DVT has a low frequency, indicating the low utility of compression ultrasonography. Trial registration Institutional Review Board of Tottori University Hospital (IRB no. 20A149).

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Gloria Wang ◽  
Eric Stapley ◽  
Sara Peterson ◽  
Jessica Parrott ◽  
Cecily Clark-Ganheart

Background. Rapid introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 have posed unique challenges in understanding the disease, role in vertical transmission, and in developing management. We present a case of a patient with COVID-19 infection and fetus with new-onset fetal SVT. Case. A 26-year-old gravida 4 para 2012 with third trimester COVID-19 infection was diagnosed with new onset fetal SVT. Successful cardioversion was achieved with flecainide. The patient was followed outpatient until induction of labor at 39 and 3/7 weeks of gestational age resulting in an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Postpartum course was uncomplicated. Conclusion. Fetal SVT is a potential complication of maternal COVID-19 infection. The use of transplacental therapy with flecainide is an appropriate alternative to digoxin in these cases.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document