helicopter rotors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. 108680
Liang Yu ◽  
Longjing Yu ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Ran Wang ◽  
Zhifei Chen

Rajesh Yadav ◽  
Aslesha Bodavula

Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of triangular groove on the dynamic stall characteristics of a NACA 0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 135,000. The right-angled triangular grooves are placed at either 10%, 25%, or 50% chord locations on the suction and have depths of 0.025c and 0.05c, measured normal to the surface of the airfoil. The solutions that are second order accurate in time and space are obtained using pressure-based finite volume solver and the 4-equation transition SST turbulence model viz. γ- Re θt is used to predict transition and viscous stresses accurately. The airfoil is in harmonic pitch motion about its quarter-chord with a maximum circular frequency of 18.67 rad/s. The results suggest that the presence of a groove, except for the deeper grove at 0.5c, quickens the dynamic stall, but with smaller rise in C l,max and a less severe fall in lift at the stall. The mean C l value during the downstroke is improved by up to 8% for the deeper groove at 0.25c, reducing the hysteresis in lift significantly. The grooves at 0.1c, 0.25c, and 0.5c also reduce the drag by 4%, 7%, and 9% during a complete cycle, with subsequent improvements of 54%, 69%, and 63% in the l/d ratio. The current finding can be thus used to enhance the performance of flapping wing MAVs, helicopter rotors, and wind turbine blades as these applications encounter the dynamic stall phenomena frequently.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1201 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
K E T Giljarhus ◽  
G S Shariatpanahi ◽  
O A Frøynes

Abstract A reversible airfoil is an airfoil that has equal performance when the flow is reversed. Such airfoils are relevant for many different applications, including use in ventilation fans, helicopter rotors, wind turbines and tidal turbines. Compared to traditional airfoils, reversible airfoils have different performance characteristics and have been less explored in the scientific literature. This work investigates the aerodynamic performance of some selected reversible airfoils using computational fluid dynamics. The selected airfoils are based on existing NACA 6 profiles and a profile using B-spline parameterization. The results show reduced performance for the reversible airfoils compared to a unidirectional airfoil. Of the investigated airfoils, the B-spline airfoil has the highest performance, with a maximum aerodynamic efficiency which is 87 % of the unidirectional design.

AIAA Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Ryan P. Patterson ◽  
Peretz P. Friedmann

Tanmoy Chatterjee ◽  
Aniekan Essien ◽  
Ranjan Ganguli ◽  
Michael I. Friswell

AbstractThis paper addresses the influence of manufacturing variability of a helicopter rotor blade on its aeroelastic responses. An aeroelastic analysis using finite elements in spatial and temporal domains is used to compute the helicopter rotor frequencies, vibratory hub loads, power required and stability in forward flight. The novelty of the work lies in the application of advanced data-driven machine learning (ML) techniques, such as convolution neural networks (CNN), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), random forests, support vector machines and adaptive Gaussian process (GP) for capturing the nonlinear responses of these complex spatio-temporal models to develop an efficient physics-informed ML framework for stochastic rotor analysis. Thus, the work is of practical significance as (i) it accounts for manufacturing uncertainties, (ii) accurately quantifies their effects on nonlinear response of rotor blade and (iii) makes the computationally expensive simulations viable by the use of ML. A rigorous performance assessment of the aforementioned approaches is presented by demonstrating validation on the training dataset and prediction on the test dataset. The contribution of the study lies in the following findings: (i) The uncertainty in composite material and geometric properties can lead to significant variations in the rotor aeroelastic responses and thereby highlighting that the consideration of manufacturing variability in analyzing helicopter rotors is crucial for assessing their behaviour in real-life scenarios. (ii) Precisely, the substantial effect of uncertainty has been observed on the six vibratory hub loads and the damping with the highest impact on the yawing hub moment. Therefore, sufficient factor of safety should be considered in the design to alleviate the effects of perturbation in the simulation results. (iii) Although advanced ML techniques are harder to train, the optimal model configuration is capable of approximating the nonlinear response trends accurately. GP and CNN followed by MLP achieved satisfactory performance. Excellent accuracy achieved by the above ML techniques demonstrates their potential for application in the optimization of rotors under uncertainty.

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