Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G Journal of Aerospace Engineering
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Published By Sage Publications

2041-3025, 0954-4100

Author(s):  
Arshiya Mahmoudi ◽  
Mahdi Mortazavi ◽  
Mehdi Sabzehparvar

For more than a decade, the multi-state constraint Kalman filter is used for visual-inertial navigation. Its advantages are the light-weight calculations, consistency, and similarity to the current mature GPS/INS Kalman filters. For using it in an airborne platform, an important deficiency exists. It diverges while the object stops moving. In this work, this deficiency is accounted for, by changing the state augmentation and measurement update policy from a time-based to horizontal travel-based scheme, and by reusing the oldest tracked point over and over. Besides the computational savings, it works infinitely with no extra errors in full-stops and with minor error build up in very low speeds.


Author(s):  
Kuo Zhu ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Sergey Gnezdilov

Quadrotors suspended water containers may be used for fire-fighting services. Unfortunately, the complicated dynamics in this type of system degrade the flight safety because of coupling effects among the quadrotor attitude, container swing, and liquid sloshing. However, few effects have been directed at the attitude-pendulum-sloshing dynamics in this type of aerial cranes. A novel planar model of a quadrotor carrying a liquid tank under dual-hoist mechanisms is presented. The model includes vehicle-attitude dynamics, load-swing dynamics, and fluid-sloshing dynamics. Resulting from the model, a new method is proposed to control coupled oscillations among the vehicle attitude, load swing, and fluid sloshing. Numerous simulations on the nonlinear model demonstrate that the control method can reduce the undesirable oscillations, stabilize the quadrotor’s attitude, and reject the external disturbances. The theoretical findings may also extend to the three-dimensional dynamics of quadrotors slung liquid tanks, and other types of aerial vehicles transporting liquid containers including helicopters or tiltrotors.


Author(s):  
Peichao Mi ◽  
Qingxian Wu ◽  
Yuhui Wang

This paper presents a novel suboptimal attitude tracking controller based on the algebraic Riccati equation for a near-space hypersonic vehicle (NSHV). Since the NSHV’s attitude dynamics is complexly nonlinear, it is hard to directly construct an appropriate algebraic Riccati equation. We design the construction based on the Chebyshev series and the Koopman operator theory, which includes three steps. First, the Chebyshev series are considered to transform the error dynamics of the NSHV’s attitude into a polynomial system. Second, the Koopman operator is used to obtain a series of high-dimensional linear dynamics to approximate each of the polynomial system’s vector fields. In this step, our contribution is to determine a well-posed linear dynamics with the minimal dimension to approximate the original nonlinear vector field, which helps to design the control law and analyze the control performance. Third, based on the high-dimensional dynamics, the NSHV’s attitude error dynamics is separated into the linear part and the nonlinear part, such that the algebraic Riccati equation can be constructed according to the linear part. Then, the suboptimal error feedback control law is derived from the algebraic Riccati equation. The closed-loop control system is proved to be locally exponentially stable. Finally, the numerical simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the suboptimal control law.


Author(s):  
Hyun-gi Kim ◽  
Sungchan Kim ◽  
Byung-Geun Ha

In this study, for the purpose of conducting the structural tests for the verification of structural soundness of the flight-load conditions of the external fuel tank for the fixed-wing aircraft, the flight load acting on the external fuel tank was converted to test load and the suitability of the converted loads was verified. The loads imposed on the external fuel tank were expressed as the combination of the inertial load (based on the acceleration in the translational direction) and the tangential direction inertial load (based on the angular acceleration of the moment). To calculate the test load, the transfer function table was generated by calculating the shear load and moment based on the unit load. For this purpose, a transfer function table was established by dividing the external fuel tank into a few sections and calculating the shear load and moment generated by the unit shear load and unit moment in each section. In addition, the test load for each section was calculated by computing the established transfer function table and flight-load conditions. However, in actual structural tests, it is often not possible to impose a load in the same position as the point at which the shear load and moment are calculated. For this reason, the actual test-load positions had to be determined and the calculated test loads were redistributed to those positions. Then, the final test load plan was established by applying a whiffle tree to increase the efficiency of the test while also making it easier to apply the actuators. Finally, the suitability of the established test load plan was confirmed by comparison with the flight-load conditions.


Author(s):  
Zhao Lianpeng ◽  
Ma Hongwei

Demand for high reliability and long life of modern turbine requires that turbine components should be cooled adequately. The cooling flow purged into the rotor-stator disk cavity will inevitably interact with the mainstream. The current paper mainly focuses on the aerodynamic influence of cooling flow on the secondary flows in the mainstream. Both particle image velocimetry and blade wall pressure measurement were utilized to study the flow field within the turbine blade passage under different mainstream incidence angles and purge flow rates. The purge flow was found to promote the development of the passage vortex by inducing vortices which can enhance the vorticity of the passage vortex. In addition, the mainstream incidence angle also has an impact on the development of the passage vortex through affecting the blade loading and the horseshoe vortex. Furthermore, the transient results demonstrate that the time-averaged vortex is the superposition of large number of transient vortices, and the purge flow causes more transient vortices with large size and high strength.


Author(s):  
Juan Fang ◽  
Qiangang Zheng ◽  
Haibo Zhang

The on-board dynamic model is the basis of numerous advanced control technologies for modern aero-engine, and its accuracy and real-time performance are two crucial indicators. Since the simulation accuracy declines with the deviation from the ground point of the conventional compact propulsion system dynamic model (CPSDM), an improved CPSDM (ICPSDM) based on deep neural network is proposed in this paper. First, the K-means algorithm is utilized to get the sampling point, and the engine simulation data is collected in the cluster centers. Then, the batch normalize deep neural network (BN-DNN) is applied to build the ICPSDM, which can shorten the training time tremendously. The simulation results show that, in the same simulation environment, the accuracy of turbine inlet temperature T 4 , fan surge margin SMc, thrust F, and specific fuel consumption SFC calculated by ICPSDM are 11.04, 3.17, 1.89, and 1.98 times of CPSDM, respectively, at off-design point, and the real-time performance of ICPSDM is more than 30 times faster than the component-level model.


Author(s):  
Carlos Cabaleiro de la Hoz ◽  
Marco Fioriti

Flight control surfaces guarantee a safe and precise control of the aircraft. As a result, hinge moments are generated. These moments need to be estimated in order to properly size the aircraft actuators. Control surfaces include the ailerons, rudder, elevator, flaps, slats, and spoilers, and they are moved by electric or hydraulic actuators. Actuator sizing is the key when comparing different flight control system architectures. This fact becomes even more important when developing more-electric aircraft. Hinge moments need to be estimated so that the actuators can be properly sized and their effects on the overall aircraft design are measured. Hinge moments are difficult to estimate on the early stages of the design process due to the large number of required input. Detailed information about the airfoil, wing surfaces, control surfaces, and actuators is needed but yet not known on early design phases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new methodology for flight control system sizing, including mass and power estimation. A surrogate model for the hinge moment estimation is also proposed and used. The main advantage of this new methodology is that all the components and actuators can be properly sized instead of just having overall system results. The whole system can now be sized more in detail during the preliminary design process, which allows to have a more reliable estimation and to perform systems installation analysis. Results show a reliable system mass estimation similar to the results obtained with other known methods and also providing the weight for each component individually.


Author(s):  
Muhammad Sohail Khan Raja ◽  
Qasim Ali

The Flight Control System (FCS) is considered as the brain of an aerial vehicle. It is a mechanism through which pilot’s commands are transferred to the actuators of the aircraft control surfaces. In order to ensure safety and increase reliability of aerial vehicles, development of fault tolerant FCSs has been the focus of research community for past few decades. Fault tolerant ability enables an aircraft to maintain satisfactory performance even in the state of a fault. Fault Tolerant Control Systems (FTCS) are categorized as passive and active control systems. Passive FTCS are designed to mitigate the effects of certain known faults. These faults can be related to sensor failure, actuator failure, or system component failure. On the other hand, active FTCS contain a controller reconfiguration mechanism, whereby, they can adjust the controller input online to mitigate the effects of the faults. In this way, they can accommodate complicated and versatile faults as compared to their passive counterparts. This paper presents a review of significant research during last decade in active fault tolerant control with applications to FCSs. A review of state-of-the-art works in this domain has also been presented. Upon review, these state-of-the-art research interests have been categorized into respective categories. Furthermore, research works have been cataloged based on their technology readiness levels. Based on these reviews, future research directions have also been highlighted.


Author(s):  
Shang Yiming ◽  
Hua Ruhao ◽  
Yuan Xianxu ◽  
Tang Zhigong ◽  
Wang Zhongwei

The shape of hypersonic aircrafts represented by waveriders is becoming more slender and flatter, thereby greatly reducing the structural rigidity. This innovation is applied to satisfy the demand of long-range flight. The rolling stability of the waveriders is poor due to the slender shape. Therefore, the effect of the elastic deformation on the rolling stability cannot be ignored. The effect of the elastic deformation on the stability of rolling and forced pitching/free rolling coupling motions of the waveriders is studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/computational structural dynamics (CSD)/rigid body dynamics (RBD) coupling methodology. Comparison results of numerical simulation indicate that the elastic deformation of the structure increases the local angle of attack, thereby enhancing the static stability of the waveriders. The rolling motion of the waveriders changes from point attractor to periodic attractor when the vibration velocity due to elastic deformation is considered. The rolling oscillation frequency of the flexible model is higher than that of the rigid model. For the forced pitching/free rolling motion, stability theory based on the rigid body hypothesis is unsuitable when the elastic effect is taken into consideration.


Author(s):  
Jia-Jun He ◽  
Yong-Ping Zhao

Machinery prognostics play a crucial role in upgrading machinery service and optimizing machinery operation and maintenance schedule by forecasting the remaining useful life (RUL) of the monitored equipment, which has become more and more popular in recent years. The safety of aviation is one of the issues that people are most concerned about in the field of transportation, since it might cause disastrous loss of life and property once accident happened. The turbofan engine is an important part of the aircraft that provides thrust for plane. With aging, the turbofan engine becomes prone to failures. As a result, it would be worth studying prognostics in turbofan engine to improve the reliability of machinery and reduce unnecessary maintenance cost. Recently, a data-driven prognostics modeling strategy called the classification of predictions strategy (CPS) was proposed, in which the continuous signal and the discrete modes of an actual system come together to achieve RUL estimation. However, machine health states measured from classification rarely have just one potential situation, and this strategy cannot determine whether the fault occurs or not by a certain probability which comes closer to reality. Moreover, since there is no information and prior knowledge of prognostics application, it is hard to obtain the probability of various situations from raw measured data. Hence, based on previous work, this paper proposes an improved prognostics modeling method named the classification of predictions strategy with decision probability (CPS-DP), whose key innovations mainly include three parts: (1) decision probability process (DPP) where each step of multi-step prediction obeys geometric distribution and can judge whether the failure state occurs using the decision probability; (2) decision probability calculation (DPC) algorithm, which is first proposed by this paper and can calculate the values of decision probability without prior knowledge of prognostics application; and (3) withdrawal mechanism optimizer (WMO), which is specially designed to compensate for the shortcomings of DPP and further enhance the performance of the prognostics model. In brief, first, CPS is used to build a basic prognostics model to acquire RUL estimation results, in which the information applied to find the probability has been contained. Later, the mean of RUL estimation errors is figured from the results, which is further employed to calculate the probability using DPC algorithm. Then, CPS-DP can be achieved by means of integrating two parts: DPP and CPS. Furthermore, to further improve the performance, WMO is utilized to optimize CPS-DP with rolling back predictions. Ultimately, an enhanced prognostic model based on CPS-DP is set up through uniting CPS, DPP, and WMO. To validate the proposed method, experimental results on the turbofan engine in 2008 prognostics and health management competition are investigated.


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