Sensor Networks
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Mohammed D. Aljubaily ◽  
Imad Alshawi

The existence of a mobile sink for gathering data significantly extends wireless sensor networks (WSNs) lifetime. In recent years, a variety of efficient rendezvous points-based sink mobility approaches has been proposed for avoiding the energy sink-holes problem nearby the sink, diminishing buffer overflow of sensors, and reducing the data latency. Nevertheless, lots of research has been carried out to sort out the energy holes problem using controllable-based sink mobility methods. However, further developments can be demonstrated and achieved on such type of mobility management system. In this paper, a well-rounded strategy involving an energy-efficient routing protocol along with a controllable-based sink mobility method is proposed to extirpate the energy sink-holes problem. This paper fused the fuzzy A-star as a routing protocol for mitigating the energy consumption during data forwarding along with a novel sink mobility method which adopted a grid partitioning system and fuzzy system that takes account of the average residual energy, sensors density, average traffic load, and sources angles to detect the optimal next location of the mobile sink. By utilizing diverse performance metrics, the empirical analysis of our proposed work showed an outstanding result as compared with fuzzy A-star protocol in the case of a static sink.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Munsif Ali ◽  
Sahar Shah ◽  
Mahnoor Khan ◽  
Ihsan Ali ◽  
Roobaea Alroobaea ◽  

Designing an efficient, reliable, and stable algorithm for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UA-WSNs) needs immense attention. It is due to their notable and distinctive challenges. To address the difficulties and challenges, the article introduces two algorithms: the multilayer sink (MuLSi) algorithm and its reliable version MuLSi-Co using the cooperation technique. The first algorithm proposes a multilayered network structure instead of a solid single structure and sinks placement at the optimal position, which reduces multiple hops communication. Moreover, the best forwarder selection amongst the nodes based on nodes’ closeness to the sink is a good choice. As a result, it makes the network perform better. Unlike the traditional algorithms, the proposed scheme does not need location information about nodes. However, the MuLSi algorithm does not fulfill the requirement of reliable operation due to a single link. Therefore, the MuLSi-Co algorithm utilizes nodes’collaborative behavior for reliable information. In cooperation, the receiver has multiple copies of the same data. Then, it combines these packets for the purpose of correct data reception. The data forwarding by the relay without any latency eliminates the synchronization problem. Moreover, the overhearing of the data gets rid of duplicate transmissions. The proposed schemes are superior in energy cost and reliable exchanging of data and have more alive and less dead nodes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Hang Zhang ◽  
Fanglin Niu ◽  
Ling Yu ◽  
Si Zhang

In traditional wireless sensor networks, information transmission usually uses data encryption methods to prevent information from being stolen illegally. However, once the encryption methods are leaked, eavesdropping nodes can easily obtain information. LT codes are rateless codes; if it is attacked by random channel noise, the decoding process will change and the decoding overhead will also randomly change. When it is used for physical layer communication of wireless sensor networks, it ensures that the destination node recovers all the information without adding the key, while the eavesdropping node can only obtain part of the information to achieve wireless information security transmission. To reduce the intercept efficiency of eavesdropping nodes, a physical layer security (PLS) method of LT codes with double encoding matrix reorder (DEMR-LT codes) is proposed. This method performs two consecutive LT code concatenated encoding on the source symbol, and part of the encoding matrix is reordered according to the degree value of each column from large to small, which reduces the probability of eavesdropping nodes recovering the source information. Experimental results show that compared with other LT code PLS schemes, DEMR-LT codes only increase the decoding overhead by a small amount. However, it can effectively reduce the intercept efficiency of eavesdropping nodes and improve information transmission security.

2022 ◽  
Sangeetha Ganesan ◽  
Vijayalakshmi Muthuswamy

Abstract Congestion control for real time traffic is an important network measure to be handled in case of repeated event triggers, continuous packet re-transmissions, node interference, node deaths and node failures in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Network modelling for transmission of packets from source node to sink using probabilistic M/Pareto and Poisson processes have been examined in the past. The existing methodologies are deficit in designing a queuing framework considering other network parameters such as energy consumption and delay for alleviating congestion and thereby efficiently routing packets to sink by reducing packet drops. To overcome this fall back, a Minimum Weight Estimation for Mitigating Congestion during Real Time Burst Traffic (MWCBT) framework is proposed. This gives a precautionary solution against heavy traffic occupancy among the interim and sink-neighbouring nodes in WSNs is proposed. Routing of packets using a congestion-free path is required to increase the node lifespan. An optimal M/Pareto stochastic traffic generator is used in combination with traffic factors such as energy and delay to predict amount of traffic across nodes. A simpler congestion prediction mechanism is performed to control the occurrence of heavy-tailed traffic distributions. A torrent weight value for incoming traffic is generated at each node periodically that directs routing of data packets to sink. The devised MWCBT framework supervises real-time traffic congestion and is found to be more optimal than the existing approaches for network traffic modelling. The proposed approach achieves greater packet delivery ratio and less node congestion compared to the existing network modelling techniques.

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