traffic load
Recently Published Documents





Mohammed D. Aljubaily ◽  
Imad Alshawi

The existence of a mobile sink for gathering data significantly extends wireless sensor networks (WSNs) lifetime. In recent years, a variety of efficient rendezvous points-based sink mobility approaches has been proposed for avoiding the energy sink-holes problem nearby the sink, diminishing buffer overflow of sensors, and reducing the data latency. Nevertheless, lots of research has been carried out to sort out the energy holes problem using controllable-based sink mobility methods. However, further developments can be demonstrated and achieved on such type of mobility management system. In this paper, a well-rounded strategy involving an energy-efficient routing protocol along with a controllable-based sink mobility method is proposed to extirpate the energy sink-holes problem. This paper fused the fuzzy A-star as a routing protocol for mitigating the energy consumption during data forwarding along with a novel sink mobility method which adopted a grid partitioning system and fuzzy system that takes account of the average residual energy, sensors density, average traffic load, and sources angles to detect the optimal next location of the mobile sink. By utilizing diverse performance metrics, the empirical analysis of our proposed work showed an outstanding result as compared with fuzzy A-star protocol in the case of a static sink.

2022 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 104555
Ru-Yi Hou ◽  
Jun-Jie Zheng ◽  
Hao Fang ◽  
Lingyun You

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Michael I.-C. Wang ◽  
Charles H.-P. Wen ◽  
H. Jonathan Chao

The recent emergence of Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) enables the Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM) system, replacing traffic signals and human driving operations for improved safety and road efficiency. When CAVs approach an intersection, AIM schedules their intersection usage in a collision-free manner while minimizing their waiting times. In practice, however, there are pedestrian road-crossing requests and spillback problems, a blockage caused by the congestion of the downstream intersection when the traffic load exceeds the road capacity. As a result, collisions occur when CAVs ignore pedestrians or are forced to the congested road. In this article, we present a cooperative AIM system, named Roadrunner+ , which simultaneously considers CAVs, pedestrians, and upstream/downstream intersections for spillback handling, collision avoidance, and efficient CAV controls. The performance of Roadrunner+ is evaluated with the SUMO microscopic simulator. Our experimental results show that Roadrunner+ has 15.16% higher throughput than other AIM systems and 102.53% higher throughput than traditional traffic signals. Roadrunner+ also reduces 75.62% traveling delay compared to other AIM systems. Moreover, the results show that CAVs in Roadrunner+ save up to 7.64% in fuel consumption, and all the collisions caused by spillback are prevented in Roadrunner+.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110736
Shu-Yan Liu ◽  
Zhao-Yang Zhang ◽  
Xiao Xue ◽  
Qing-Zhou Wang ◽  
Cheng-Zhi Xiao

In this study, the load level, soil cover height, rise-span ratio, and arch foot constraint state were utilized to explore the mechanical properties of buried arch glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) structures. Through the indoor scale-down test, the stress and deformation of arched GFRP structures under different load and soil cover height were investigated. Additionally, through the three-dimensional finite element method, the influence of the rise-span ratio and the constraint state of arch foot on the mechanical properties were obtained. The results indicate the new buried composite arch structure has excellent bearing capacity for the possible traffic load. Simultaneously, the semi-elliptical arch structure was believed to outperform the semi-circular arch structure when considering the external load. Specifically, increasing the soil cover height and reducing rise-span ratio were found to achieve the load-reduction effect.

Dmitriy Moskovchenko ◽  
Roman Pozhitkov ◽  
Dzhamilya Ukarkhanova

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Syaiful Syaiful ◽  
Hermanto Siregar ◽  
Ernan Rustiadi ◽  
Eri Susanto Hariyadi

<p>The increase in urban transportation in the 2000s era was very high. The use of motorized vehicles during the pandemic has decreased slightly with the government's ban on traveling out of town, including the 2020 homecoming and 2021 homecoming. Most people who travel are in the city center, including the city of Bogor and Bogor district. The travel patterns are very diverse, but most use public transportation and private transportation in addition to freight transportation with a fairly high intensity, especially at night. The purpose of this study was to obtain the LoS value at the signalized intersection of the three arms of the Salabenda intersection. The three-arm Salabenda intersection is the border between Bogor regency and the city of Bogor, so this intersection is one of the busiest and most densely populated intersections beside the Ciawi intersection in the north. The Salabenda intersection has become more congested with the opening of the Section IIIA Toll Road so that the traffic load shifts from Jl. KH. Sholeh Iskandar to this toll road, so that the intersection will have a higher traffic intensity. From the three observations and data collection in the field, it can be seen that in the afternoon it has a very high LoS, namely E. Followed by a LoS D level in the afternoon and in the morning LoS is still in the form of C. So it is still safe to use in the morning with a recommended level. The LoS E condition is a condition where the intersection has a degree of saturation of 0.926, which is almost close to 1, exacerbated by high side resistance activity.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (0) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Mindaugas Zakarka

This article represents traffic loads on the road structure distribution and evaluation of the vertical and horizontal stresses formation in the soil embankment. This evaluation allows to predict the depth and intensity of the propagation of additional stresses resulting from traffic loads. The calculations were performed in accordance with four normative documents applied in Lithuania, which define the loads on the road structure. The obtained results showed that the area to which the load is distributed has the greatest influence on the intensity of stresses and the distance of propagation. The maximum horizontal stress in the embankment was found to be no more than 70 kPa and the maximum stress propagation depth did not exceed 0.9 m. The results can be applied to a triaxial test apparatus to restore horizontal stresses in the embankment. It is recommended to select a lateral pressure from 20 kPa to 70 kPa for tests provided with triaxial test device. The mechanical properties of the soil determined with triaxial test device and recommended lateral pressure would be representative of the test results obtained in the field of embankment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Alaa M. Mukhtar ◽  
Rashid A. Saeed ◽  
Rania A. Mokhtar ◽  
Elmustafa Sayed Ali ◽  
Hesham Alhumyani

Emerging 5G network cellular promotes key empowering techniques for pervasive IoT. Evolving 5G-IoT scenarios and basic services like reality augmented, high dense streaming of videos, unmanned vehicles, e-health, and intelligent environments services have a pervasive existence now. These services generate heavy loads and need high capacity, bandwidth, data rate, throughput, and low latency. Taking all these requirements into consideration, internet of things (IoT) networks have provided global transformation in the context of big data innovation and bring many problematic issues in terms of uplink and downlink (DL) connectivity and traffic load. These comprise coordinated multipoint processing (CoMP), carriers’ aggregation (CA), joint transmissions (JTs), massive multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO), machine-type communications, centralized radios access networks (CRAN), and many others. CoMP is one of the most significant technical enhancements added to release 11 that can be implemented in heterogonous networks implementation approaches and the homogenous networks’ topologies. However, in a massive 5G-IoT device scenario with heavy traffic load, most cell edge IoT users are severely suffering from intercell interference (ICI), where the users have poor signal, lower data rates, and limited QoS. This work is aimed at addressing this problematic issue by proposing two types of DL-JT-CoMP techniques in 5G-IoT that are compliant with release 18. Downlink JT-CoMP with two homogeneous network CoMP deployment scenarios is considered and evaluated. The scenarios used are IoT intrasite and intersite CoMP, which performance evaluated using downlink system-level simulator for long-term evolution-advanced (LTE-A) and 5G. Numerical simulation scenarios were results under high dense scenario—with IoT heavy traffic load which shows that intersite CoMP has better empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) of average UE throughput than intrasite CoMP approximately 4%, inter-site CoMP has better ECDF of average user entity (UE) spectral efficiency than intrasite CoMP almost 10%, and intersite CoMP has approximately same ECDF of average signal interference noise ratio (SINR) as intrasite CoMP and intersite CoMP has better fairness index than intrasite CoMP by 5%. The fairness index decreases when the users’ number increase since the competition among users is higher.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Lei Sun

To gain a better understanding of the undrained deformation characteristic of saturated marine clay soil subjected to vehicle cyclic traffic load, a sophisticated dynamic triaxial was used to conduct a variety of undrained one-way compression cyclic experiments with variable confining pressure (VCP) as well as constant confining pressure (CCP). The results indicate that, compared to CCP test results, VCP is helpful to raise the axial resilient modulus (Mr) and restrain the permanent plastic strain ( ε a p ) development of the specimens. By normalization analysis of the measured data of Mr and ε a p , the virtually unique correlation between normalized average resilient modulus, normalized permanent axial strain after 1,000 loading cycles, and normalized mean normal stress is established, respectively, regardless of the values of CSR. Additionally, the VCP influence on ε a p is quantified and fitted by a power law function, which can be used for subsoil deformation prediction and provides new insights into the mechanics of strain accumulation under undrained cyclic loading conditions.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document