key distribution
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Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Yi Zheng ◽  
Haobin Shi ◽  
Wei Pan ◽  
Quantao Wang ◽  
Jiahui Mao

Continuous-variable measure-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) is proposed to remove all imperfections originating from detection. However, there are still some inevitable imperfections in a practical CV-MDI QKD system. For example, there is a fluctuating channel transmittance in the complex communication environments. Here we investigate the security of the system under the effects of the fluctuating channel transmittance, where the transmittance is regarded as a fixed value related to communication distance in theory. We first discuss the parameter estimation in fluctuating channel transmittance based on these establishing of channel models, which has an obvious deviation compared with the estimated parameters in the ideal case. Then, we show the evaluated results when the channel transmittance respectively obeys the two-point distribution and the uniform distribution. In particular, the two distributions can be easily realized under the manipulation of eavesdroppers. Finally, we analyze the secret key rate of the system when the channel transmittance obeys the above distributions. The simulation analysis indicates that a slight fluctuation of the channel transmittance may seriously reduce the performance of the system, especially in the extreme asymmetric case. Furthermore, the communication between Alice, Bob and Charlie may be immediately interrupted. Therefore, eavesdroppers can manipulate the channel transmittance to complete a denial-of-service attack in a practical CV-MDI QKD system. To resist this attack, the Gaussian post-selection method can be exploited to calibrate the parameter estimation to reduce the deterioration of performance of the system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Ayan Biswas ◽  
Anindya Banerji ◽  
Nijil Lal ◽  
Pooja Chandravanshi ◽  
Rupesh Kumar ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 81-93
A. V. Kolyako ◽  
A. S. Pleshkov ◽  
D. B. Tretyakov ◽  
V. M. Entin ◽  
I. I. Ryabtsev ◽  

Experimental results demonstrating long-term stability of the operation of our atmospheric quantum cryptography setup using the BB84 protocol and polarization coding are presented. It was shown that the “sifted” quantum key distribution rate and the quantum bit error rate in the key remained constant for 1 hour and were equal to 10 kbit/s and 6.5 %, respectively, at a distance between the transmitter and the receiver equal to 20 cm. Theoretical dependences of the secret quantum key generation rate on a quantum channel transmission coefficient for single-photon detectors, which were used in this experiment, and for new detectors with a reduced level of dark pulses are given.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Cecilia Clivati ◽  
Alice Meda ◽  
Simone Donadello ◽  
Salvatore Virzì ◽  
Marco Genovese ◽  

AbstractQuantum mechanics allows distribution of intrinsically secure encryption keys by optical means. Twin-field quantum key distribution is one of the most promising techniques for its implementation on long-distance fiber networks, but requires stabilizing the optical length of the communication channels between parties. In proof-of-principle experiments based on spooled fibers, this was achieved by interleaving the quantum communication with periodical stabilization frames. In this approach, longer duty cycles for the key streaming come at the cost of a looser control of channel length, and a successful key-transfer using this technique in real world remains a significant challenge. Using interferometry techniques derived from frequency metrology, we develop a solution for the simultaneous key streaming and channel length control, and demonstrate it on a 206 km field-deployed fiber with 65 dB loss. Our technique reduces the quantum-bit-error-rate contributed by channel length variations to <1%, representing an effective solution for real-world quantum communications.

2022 ◽  
Qingquan Peng ◽  
Qin Liao ◽  
Hai Zhong ◽  
Junkai Hu ◽  
Ying Guo

Abstract The trans-media transmission of quantum pulse is one of means of free-space transmission which can be applied in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system. In traditional implementations for atmospheric channels, the 1500-to-1600-nm pulse is regarded as an ideal quantum pulse carrier. Whereas, the underwater transmission of this pulses tends to suffer from severe attenuation, which inevitably deteriorates the security of the whole CVQKD system. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme for implementations of CVQKD over satellite-to-submarine channels. We estimate the parameters of the trans-media channels, involving atmosphere, sea surface and seawater and find that the short-wave infrared performs well in the above channels. The 450 nm pulse is used for generations of quantum signal carriers to accomplish quantum communications through atmosphere, sea surface and seawater channels. Numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme can achieve the transmission distance of 600 km. In addition, we demonstrate that non-Gaussian operations can further lengthen its maximal transmission distance, which contributes to the establishment of practical global quantum networks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
Giulio Foletto ◽  
Francesco Picciariello ◽  
Costantino Agnesi ◽  
Paolo Villoresi ◽  
Giuseppe Vallone

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