Wireless Sensor Networks
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Udaya Suriya Rajkumar Dhamodharan ◽  
Sathiyaraj Rajendran ◽  
Raj Anand Sundaramoorthy ◽  
M. Thirunavukkarasan

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 1605
Cesar Alfaro ◽  
Javier Gomez ◽  
Javier M. Moguerza ◽  
Javier Castillo ◽  
Jose I. Martinez

Typical applications of wireless sensor networks (WSN), such as in Industry 4.0 and smart cities, involves acquiring and processing large amounts of data in federated systems. Important challenges arise for machine learning algorithms in this scenario, such as reducing energy consumption and minimizing data exchange between devices in different zones. This paper introduces a novel method for accelerated training of parallel Support Vector Machines (pSVMs), based on ensembles, tailored to these kinds of problems. To achieve this, the training set is split into several Voronoi regions. These regions are small enough to permit faster parallel training of SVMs, reducing computational payload. Results from experiments comparing the proposed method with a single SVM and a standard ensemble of SVMs demonstrate that this approach can provide comparable performance while limiting the number of regions required to solve classification tasks. These advantages facilitate the development of energy-efficient policies in WSN.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 69
Omar Banimelhem ◽  
Eyad Taqieddin ◽  
Ibrahim Shatnawi

Recently, the data collection problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) using mobile sinks has received much attention. The main challenge in such problems is constructing the path that the mobile sink (MS) will use to collect the data. In this paper, an efficient path generation algorithm for the mobile sink based on principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. The proposed approach was evaluated using two data collection modes—direct and multihop—and it was compared with another approach called the mobile-sink-based energy-efficient clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks (MECA). When compared with MECA, simulation results have shown that the proposed approach improves the performance of WSN in terms of the number of live nodes and average remaining energy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Felicia Engmann ◽  
Kofi Sarpong Adu-Manu ◽  
Jamal-Deen Abdulai ◽  
Ferdinand Apietu Katsriku

In Wireless Sensor Networks, sensor nodes are deployed to ensure continuous monitoring of the environment which requires high energy utilization during the data transmission. To address the challenge of high energy consumption through frequent independent data transmission, the IEEE 802.11b provides a backoff window that reduces collisions and energy losses. In the case of Internet of Things (IoTs), billions of devices communicate with each other simultaneously. Therefore, adapting the contention/backoff window size to data traffic to reduce congestion has been one such approach in WSN. In recent years, the IEEE 802.11b MAC protocol is used in most ubiquitous technology adopted for devices communicating in the IoT environment. In this paper, we perform a thorough evaluation of the IEEE 802.11b standard taking into consideration the channel characteristics for IoT devices. Our evaluation is aimed at determining the optimum parameters suitable for network optimization in IoT systems utilizing the IEEE 802.11b protocol. Performance analysis is made on the sensitivity of the IEEE 802.11b protocol with respect to the packet size, packet delivery ratio (PDR), end-to-end delay, and energy consumption. Our studies have shown that for optimal performance, IoT devices using IEEE 802.11b channel require data packet of size 64 bytes, a data rate of 11Mbps, and an interpacket generation interval of 4 seconds. The sensitivity analysis of the optimal parameters was simulated using NS3. We observed PDR values ranging between 27% and 31%, an average end-to-end delay ranging within 10-15 ms while the energy remaining was between 5.59 and 5.63Joules. The results clearly indicate that scheduling the rate of packet generation and transmission will improve the network performance for IoT devices while maintaining data reliability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 67
Najem Naji ◽  
Mohamed Riduan Abid ◽  
Nissrine Krami ◽  
Driss Benhaddou

The design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) requires the fulfillment of several design requirements. The most important one is optimizing the battery’s lifetime, which is tightly coupled to the sensor lifetime. End-users usually avoid replacing sensors’ batteries, especially in massive deployment scenarios like smart agriculture and smart buildings. To optimize battery lifetime, wireless sensor designers need to delineate and optimize active components at different levels of the sensor’s layered architecture, mainly, (1) the number of data sets being generated and processed at the application layer, (2) the size and the architecture of the operating systems (OS), (3) the networking layers’ protocols, and (4) the architecture of electronic components and duty cycling techniques. This paper reviews the different relevant technologies and investigates how they optimize energy consumption at each layer of the sensor’s architecture, e.g., hardware, operating system, application, and networking layer. This paper aims to make the researcher aware of the various optimization opportunities when designing WSN nodes. To our knowledge, there is no other work in the literature that reviews energy optimization of WSN in the context of Smart Energy-Efficient Buildings (SEEB) and from the formerly four listed perspectives to help in the design and implementation of optimal WSN for SEEB.

Mohamed Labib Borham ◽  
Ghada Khoriba

Data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has a significant impact on the network’s performance and lifetime. Recently, several data collection techniques that use mobile elements (MEs) have been recommended, especially techniques that focus on maximising data delivery. However, energy consumption and the time required for data collection are significant for many WSN applications, particularly real-time systems. In this paper, a review of data collection techniques is presented, providing a comparison between the maximum amount shortest path (MASP) and zone-based energy-aware (ZEAL) data collection protocols implemented in the NS-3 simulator. Finally, the study provides a suitable data collection strategy that satisfies the requirements of WSN applications in terms of data delivery, energy consumption, and the time required for data collection.

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