wireless sensor networks
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Mohammed D. Aljubaily ◽  
Imad Alshawi

The existence of a mobile sink for gathering data significantly extends wireless sensor networks (WSNs) lifetime. In recent years, a variety of efficient rendezvous points-based sink mobility approaches has been proposed for avoiding the energy sink-holes problem nearby the sink, diminishing buffer overflow of sensors, and reducing the data latency. Nevertheless, lots of research has been carried out to sort out the energy holes problem using controllable-based sink mobility methods. However, further developments can be demonstrated and achieved on such type of mobility management system. In this paper, a well-rounded strategy involving an energy-efficient routing protocol along with a controllable-based sink mobility method is proposed to extirpate the energy sink-holes problem. This paper fused the fuzzy A-star as a routing protocol for mitigating the energy consumption during data forwarding along with a novel sink mobility method which adopted a grid partitioning system and fuzzy system that takes account of the average residual energy, sensors density, average traffic load, and sources angles to detect the optimal next location of the mobile sink. By utilizing diverse performance metrics, the empirical analysis of our proposed work showed an outstanding result as compared with fuzzy A-star protocol in the case of a static sink.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-41
Pamela Bezerra ◽  
Po-Yu Chen ◽  
Julie A. McCann ◽  
Weiren Yu

As sensor-based networks become more prevalent, scaling to unmanageable numbers or deployed in difficult to reach areas, real-time failure localisation is becoming essential for continued operation. Network tomography, a system and application-independent approach, has been successful in localising complex failures (i.e., observable by end-to-end global analysis) in traditional networks. Applying network tomography to wireless sensor networks (WSNs), however, is challenging. First, WSN topology changes due to environmental interactions (e.g., interference). Additionally, the selection of devices for running network monitoring processes (monitors) is an NP-hard problem. Monitors observe end-to-end in-network properties to identify failures, with their placement impacting the number of identifiable failures. Since monitoring consumes more in-node resources, it is essential to minimise their number while maintaining network tomography’s effectiveness. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art solutions solve this optimisation problem using time-consuming greedy heuristics. In this article, we propose two solutions for efficiently applying Network Tomography in WSNs: a graph compression scheme, enabling faster monitor placement by reducing the number of edges in the network, and an adaptive monitor placement algorithm for recovering the monitor placement given topology changes. The experiments show that our solution is at least 1,000× faster than the state-of-the-art approaches and efficiently copes with topology variations in large-scale WSNs.

Raed Taleb Al-Zubi ◽  
Abdulraheem Ahmed Kreishan ◽  
Mohammad Qasem Alawad ◽  
Khalid Ahmad Darabkh

<span>In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered one of the important topics for researchers due to their wide applications in our life. Several researches have been conducted to improve WSNs performance and solve their issues. One of these issues is the energy limitation in WSNs since the source of energy in most WSNs is the battery. Accordingly, various protocols and techniques have been proposed with the intention of reducing power consumption of WSNs and lengthen their lifetime. Cluster-oriented routing protocols are one of the most effective categories of these protocols. In this article, we consider a major issue affecting the performance of this category of protocols, which we call the intra/inter-cluster event-reporting problem (IICERP). We demonstrate that IICERP severely reduces the performance of a cluster-oriented routing protocol, so we suggest an effective Solution for IICERP (SIICERP). To assess SIICERP’s performance, comprehensive simulations were performed to demonstrate the performance of several cluster-oriented protocols without and with SIICERP. Simulation results revealed that SIICERP substantially increases the performance of cluster-oriented routing protocols.</span>

Mohammed Réda El Ouadi ◽  
Abderrahim Hasbi

The rapid development of connected devices and wireless communication has enabled several researchers to study wireless sensor networks and propose methods and algorithms to improve their performance. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are composed of several sensor nodes deployed to collect and transfer data to base station (BS). Sensor node is considered as the main element in this field, characterized by minimal capacities of storage, energy, and computing. In consequence of the important impact of the energy on network lifetime, several researches are interested to propose different mechanisms to minimize energy consumption. In this work, we propose a new enhancement of low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, named clustering location-based LEACH (CLOC-LEACH), which represents a continuity of our previous published work location-based LEACH (LOC-LEACH). The proposed protocol organizes sensor nodes into four regions, using clustering mechanism. In addition, an efficient concept is adopted to choose cluster head. CLOC-LEACH considers the energy as the principal metric to choose cluster heads and uses a gateway node to ensure the inter-cluster communication. The simulation with MATLAB shows that our contribution offers better performance than LEACH and LOC-LEACH, in terms of stability, energy consumption and network lifetime.

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