routing protocol
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Sudhakar Sengan ◽  
Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf ◽  
Ganga Rama Koteswara Rao ◽  
Dilip Kumar Sharma ◽  
Amarendra K. ◽  
...  

An ad hoc structure is self-organizing, self-forming, and system-free, with no nearby associations. One of the significant limits we must focus on in frameworks is leading. As for directions, we can send the packet or communications from the sender to the recipient node. AODV Routing Protocol, a short display that will make the tutorial available on demand. Machine Learning (ML) based IDS must be integrated and perfected to support the detection of vulnerabilities and enable frameworks to make intrusion decisions while ML is about their mobile context. This paper considers the combined effect of stooped difficulties along the way, problems at the medium get-right-of-area to impact layer, or pack disasters triggered by the remote control going off route. The AODV as the Routing MANET protocol is used in this work, and the process is designed and evaluated using Support Vector Machine (SVM) to detect the malicious network nodes.


Author(s):  
Mohammed D. Aljubaily ◽  
Imad Alshawi

The existence of a mobile sink for gathering data significantly extends wireless sensor networks (WSNs) lifetime. In recent years, a variety of efficient rendezvous points-based sink mobility approaches has been proposed for avoiding the energy sink-holes problem nearby the sink, diminishing buffer overflow of sensors, and reducing the data latency. Nevertheless, lots of research has been carried out to sort out the energy holes problem using controllable-based sink mobility methods. However, further developments can be demonstrated and achieved on such type of mobility management system. In this paper, a well-rounded strategy involving an energy-efficient routing protocol along with a controllable-based sink mobility method is proposed to extirpate the energy sink-holes problem. This paper fused the fuzzy A-star as a routing protocol for mitigating the energy consumption during data forwarding along with a novel sink mobility method which adopted a grid partitioning system and fuzzy system that takes account of the average residual energy, sensors density, average traffic load, and sources angles to detect the optimal next location of the mobile sink. By utilizing diverse performance metrics, the empirical analysis of our proposed work showed an outstanding result as compared with fuzzy A-star protocol in the case of a static sink.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Due to the absence of routing initiation, the routing protocol requires a secure message transition. The key downside is that there are many current routing protocols. The big downside is the inability of the node to give a message when the attackers are routing. The key attack in the proposed routing model is Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS). The Protected Geographic Routing Protocol (SGRP) is the assured routing carried out in the proposed work. The Protected Geographic Routing Protocol (SGRP) will improve the efficiency of the transmission method by choosing a specific source node. The paper suggested that the Protected Spatial Routing Protocol (PSRP) would recognize and isolate such threats. Several modeling time estimation studies have been carried out to analyze the simulation time and the efficiency of the proposed routing technique. The proposed routing technique demonstrates the performance by calculating the Packets Delivery Ratio(PDR) and Energy consumption. The Routing protocol is used in many applications such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)


Author(s):  
Suha Sahib Oleiwi ◽  
Ghassan N. Mohammed ◽  
Israa Al_Barazanchi

The wireless body area network (WBAN) has been proposed to offer a solution to the problem of population ageing, shortage in medical facilities and different chronic diseases. The development of this technology has been further fueled by the demand for real-time application for monitoring these cases in networks. The integrity of communication is constrained by the loss of packets during communication affecting the reliability of WBAN. Mitigating the loss of packets and ensuring the performance of the network is a challenging task that has sparked numerous studies over the years. The WBAN technology as a problem of reducing network lifetime; thus, in this paper, we utilize cooperative routing protocol (CRP) to improve package delivery via end-to-end latency and increase the length of the network lifetime. The end-to-end latency was used as a metric to determine the significance of CRP in WBAN routing protocols. The CRP increased the rate of transmission of packets to the sink and mitigate packet loss. The proposed solution has shown that the end-to-end delay in the WBAN is considerably reduced by applying the cooperative routing protocol. The CRP technique attained a delivery ratio of 0.8176 compared to 0.8118 when transmitting packets in WBAN.


Author(s):  
Vu Khanh Quy ◽  
Pham Minh Chuan ◽  
Le Anh Ngoc

Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) is a set of mobile devices that can self-configuration, self-established parameters to transmission in-network. Although limited inability, MANETs have been applied in many domains to serve humanity in recent years, such as disaster recovery, forest fire, military, intelligent traffic, or IoT ecosystems. Because of the movement of network devices, the system performance is low. In order to MANETs could more contribution in the future of the Internet, the routing is a significant problem to enhance the performance of MANETs. In this work, we proposed a new delay-based protocol aim enhance the system performance, called performance routing protocol based on delay (PRPD). In order to analyze the efficiency of the proposed solution, we compared the proposed protocol with traditional protocols. Experiment results showed that the PRPD protocol improved packet delivery ratio, throughput, and delay compared to the traditional protocols.


Author(s):  
Raed Taleb Al-Zubi ◽  
Abdulraheem Ahmed Kreishan ◽  
Mohammad Qasem Alawad ◽  
Khalid Ahmad Darabkh

<span>In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered one of the important topics for researchers due to their wide applications in our life. Several researches have been conducted to improve WSNs performance and solve their issues. One of these issues is the energy limitation in WSNs since the source of energy in most WSNs is the battery. Accordingly, various protocols and techniques have been proposed with the intention of reducing power consumption of WSNs and lengthen their lifetime. Cluster-oriented routing protocols are one of the most effective categories of these protocols. In this article, we consider a major issue affecting the performance of this category of protocols, which we call the intra/inter-cluster event-reporting problem (IICERP). We demonstrate that IICERP severely reduces the performance of a cluster-oriented routing protocol, so we suggest an effective Solution for IICERP (SIICERP). To assess SIICERP’s performance, comprehensive simulations were performed to demonstrate the performance of several cluster-oriented protocols without and with SIICERP. Simulation results revealed that SIICERP substantially increases the performance of cluster-oriented routing protocols.</span>


Author(s):  
Ibtissem Zaatouri ◽  
Nouha Alyaoui ◽  
Awatef Benfradj Guiloufi ◽  
Francoise Sailhan ◽  
Abdennaceur Kachouri

Drones ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Author(s):  
Esmot Ara Tuli ◽  
Mohtasin Golam ◽  
Dong-Seong Kim ◽  
Jae-Min Lee

The growing need for wireless communication has resulted in the widespread usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in a variety of applications. Designing a routing protocol for UAVs is paramount as well as challenging due to its dynamic attributes. The difficulty stems from features other than mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), such as aerial mobility in 3D space and frequently changing topology. This paper analyzes the performance of four topology-based routing protocols, dynamic source routing (DSR), ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), geographic routing protocol (GRP), and optimized link state routing (OLSR), by using practical simulation software OPNET 14.5. Performance evaluation carries out various metrics such as throughput, delay, and data drop rate. Moreover, the performance of the OLSR routing protocol is enhanced and named “E-OLSR” by tuning parameters and reducing holding time. The optimized E-OLSR settings provide better performance than the conventional request for comments (RFC 3626) in the experiment, making it suitable for use in UAV ad hoc network (UANET) environments. Simulation results indicate the proposed E-OLSR outperforms the existing OLSR and achieves supremacy over other protocols mentioned in this paper.


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