Plant Systematics and Evolution
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Published By Springer-Verlag

1615-6110, 0378-2697

2022 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Josef Greimler ◽  
Eva M. Temsch ◽  
Zhiqing Xue ◽  
Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss ◽  
Polina Volkova ◽  
...  

AbstractThe grass Deschampsia cespitosa is a variable taxon out of which many varieties, subspecies and endemic species have been separated. In this paper, the variation in genome size (GS) and ploidy of this grass including several of its subspecies and two related species in Eurasia was investigated by flow cytometric (FCM) measurements. GS and ploidy data were also related to specific environments and reproduction mode. Ploidy levels found by FCM were confirmed by chromosome counts of diploid (2n = 28) and tetraploid (2n = 52) samples. Seminiferous (seed bearing) D. cespitosa was mainly diploid (GS between 3.754 and 5.438 pg/1C). GS variation in diploids showed a geographic pattern with a significant difference (H = 41,441, P < 0.001) between European (median = 4.377 pg) and Asian (median = 4.881 pg) accessions. Genome size (1C) in tetraploids ranged from 7.9426 to 9.0399 pg. Tetraploid seminiferous D. cespitosa was found mostly in disturbed habitats in western and southern Europe, while tetraploids in Asia were registered in wet Arctic habitats. Genome size (1C between 8.3278 and 8.8603 pg) of the pseudoviviparous plants (spikelets produce plantlets asexually) of wet habitats in central and northern Europe indicated tetraploidy. A putative triploid (GS 6.6817 pg) was detected in Iceland. Summing up, we found a high variation in GS on the geographic scale with significant regional differences in diploid D. cespitosa. Among the tetraploids, the asexually reproducing plants were bound to specific habitats, while the seminiferous plants showed a habitat preference similar to the diploids.


2022 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sergio Contreras ◽  
Manlio Landahur ◽  
Karla García ◽  
Claudio Latorre ◽  
Mark Reyers ◽  
...  

AbstractIn the hyperarid Atacama Desert, water availability plays a crucial role in allowing plant survival. Along with scant rainfall, marine advective fog frequently occurs along the coastal escarpment fueling isolated mono-specific patches of Tillandsia vegetation. In this study, we investigate the lipid biomarker composition of the bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii (CAM plant) to assess structural adaptations at the molecular level as a response to extremely arid conditions. We analyzed long-chain n-alkanes and fatty acids in living specimens (n = 59) collected from the main Tillandsia dune ecosystems across a 350 km coastal transect. We found that the leaf wax composition was dominated by n-alkanes with concentrations (total average 160.8 ± 91.4 µg/g) up to three times higher than fatty acids (66.7 ± 40.7 µg/g), likely as an adaptation to the hyperarid environment. Significant differences were found in leaf wax distribution (Average Chain Length [ACL] and Carbon Preference Index [CPI]) in the northern zone relative to the central and southern zones. We found strong negative correlations between fatty acid CPI and n-alkane ACL with precipitation and surface evaporation pointing at fine-scale adaptations to low moisture availability along the coastal transect. Moreover, our data indicate that the predominance of n-alkanes is reflecting the function of the wax in preventing water loss from the leaves. The hyperarid conditions and good preservation potential of both n-alkanes and fatty acids make them ideal tracers to study late Holocene climate change in the Atacama Desert.


2021 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sunisa Sangvirotjanapat ◽  
Tomáš Fér ◽  
Jessada Denduangboripant ◽  
Mark F. Newman
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu Ito ◽  
Shrirang R. Yadav ◽  
Yuan Shiun Chang ◽  
Shuichiro Tagane ◽  
Pan Li ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sabereh S. Mousavi ◽  
Valiollah Mozaffarian ◽  
Klaus Mummenhoff ◽  
Stephen R. Downie ◽  
Shahin Zarre

2021 ◽  
Vol 308 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dorian M. Alban ◽  
Elisabeth M. Biersma ◽  
Joachim W. Kadereit ◽  
Markus S. Dillenberger
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 307 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dirk C. Albach ◽  
Zoya M. Tsymbalyuk ◽  
Sergei L. Mosyakin

AbstractPollen morphology of six species belonging to genera Ellisiophyllum and Sibthorpia (Plantaginaceae tribe Sibthorpieae) was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed in the light of the first phylogenetic analysis including all but one species of the tribe using DNA sequence data from nuclear ribosomal (ITS) and plastid trnL-F region. Pollen grains in representatives of this tribe are 3-colpate, occasionally 3-porate, suboblate to prolate; mainly medium-sized, rarely small. One major pollen type (3-colpate) is recognized in the tribe. Within this pollen type, six subtypes are distinguished based on their exine sculpture, pollen grain size, length of the apertures, and exine thickness. The obtained results confirm that pollen characters are useful for species identification. Palynomorphological data are consistent with the results of the molecular phylogenetic analyses. All studies support a sister relationship of the widespread European Sibthorpia europaea with the widespread South American Sibthorpia repens and a sister relationship of two insular species, the Balearic Sibthorpia africana and the Madeiran Sibthorpia peregrina. Pollen grains in the tribe Sibthorpieae have both reticulate exine sculpture characteristic for representatives of the Russelieae–Cheloneae–Antirrhineae clades of Plantaginaceae, and also nanoechinate sculpture, which is typical for the Veroniceae and Plantagineae clades of that family. Also, in Sibthorpia repens, we observe a possible transition from the colpate type to the porate type typical for taxa of Plantago and Littorella.


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