Fatty Acids
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yifan Chen ◽  
Yusuke Miura ◽  
Toshihiro Sakurai ◽  
Zhen Chen ◽  
Rojeet Shrestha ◽  

AbstractSerum fatty acids (FAs) exist in the four lipid fractions of triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids (PLs), cholesteryl esters (CEs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). Total fatty acids (TFAs) indicate the sum of FAs in them. In this study, four statistical analysis methods, which are independent component analysis (ICA), factor analysis, common principal component analysis (CPCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were conducted to uncover food sources of FAs among the four lipid fractions (CE, FFA, and TG + PL). Among the methods, ICA provided the most suggestive results. To distinguish the animal fat intake from endogenous fatty acids, FFA variables in ICA and factor analysis were studied. ICA provided more distinct suggestions of FA food sources (endogenous, plant oil intake, animal fat intake, and fish oil intake) than factor analysis. Moreover, ICA was discovered as a new approach to distinguish animal FAs from endogenous FAs, which will have an impact on epidemiological studies. In addition, the correlation coefficients between a published dataset of food FA compositions and the loading values obtained in the present ICA study suggested specific foods as serum FA sources. In conclusion, we found that ICA is a useful tool to uncover food sources of serum FAs.

M. Lessard‐Beaudoin ◽  
Laura M. Gonzales ◽  
Majed AlOtaibi ◽  
Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins ◽  
Melanie Plourde ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (3) ◽  
pp. e425
I. Rabeh ◽  
K. Telahigue ◽  
T. Hajji ◽  
C. Fouzai ◽  
M. El Cafsi ◽  

The present study aimed to document the interaction between mercury (Hg), as a model chemical stressor to an aquatic organism, and Fatty acid (FA) profile in the longitudinal muscle of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali. To assess the sensitivity of this species to the toxic effects of Hg, young H. forskali were exposed to gradual doses of Hg (40, 80 and160 µg·L-1) for 96 h. The results showed that following Hg exposure, the FA profile of H. forskali corresponded to an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids, and the decrease in the level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The most prominent changes in the FA composition were recorded at the lowest dose with noticeable decreases in linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels and an increase of docosahexaenoic acid. The occurrence of a state of oxidative stress induced by Hg contamination was evidenced by the enhanced levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide. Overall, the low concentration of mercury exerted the most obvious effects on lipid metabolism, suggesting that changes in fatty acid composition may be act as an early biomarker to assess mercury toxicity in this ecologically and economically important species.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0255198
Nestor O. Nazario-Yepiz ◽  
Jaime Fernández Sobaberas ◽  
Roberta Lyman ◽  
Marion R. Campbell ◽  
Vijay Shankar ◽  

Disruption of lipolysis has widespread effects on intermediary metabolism and organismal phenotypes. Defects in lipolysis can be modeled in Drosophila melanogaster through genetic manipulations of brummer (bmm), which encodes a triglyceride lipase orthologous to mammalian Adipose Triglyceride Lipase. RNAi-mediated knock-down of bmm in all tissues or metabolic specific tissues results in reduced locomotor activity, altered sleep patterns and reduced lifespan. Metabolomic analysis on flies in which bmm is downregulated reveals a marked reduction in medium chain fatty acids, long chain saturated fatty acids and long chain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in diacylglycerol levels. Elevated carbohydrate metabolites and tricarboxylic acid intermediates indicate that impairment of fatty acid mobilization as an energy source may result in upregulation of compensatory carbohydrate catabolism. bmm downregulation also results in elevated levels of serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters, possibly accounting for the impairment of locomotor activity and sleep patterns. Physiological phenotypes and metabolomic changes upon reduction of bmm expression show extensive sexual dimorphism. Altered metabolic states in the Drosophila model are relevant for understanding human metabolic disorders, since pathways of intermediary metabolism are conserved across phyla.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8747
Marta Neves ◽  
Ana Ferreira ◽  
Madalena Antunes ◽  
Joana Laranjeira Silva ◽  
Susana Mendes ◽  

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica as a sustainable source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) for hen eggs enrichment. During 4 weeks, hens were fed with 3% (w/w) of Nannochloropsis oceanica supplemented diet. Throughout the assay, eggs were analyzed according to several nutritional and physical parameters, namely: (i) protein, fat, and ash content; (ii) fatty acid profile; (iii) thickness and colour of the shell; (iv) total egg weight; (v) protein quality (HU) and (vi) yolk colour. A remarkable increase in eicosapentaenoic (EPA), from 2.1 ± 0.1 to 5.2 ± 1.2 mg/100 g, and docosahexaenoic (DHA), from 50.3 ± 4.0 to 105 ± 18 mg/100 g, fatty acids was observed. Yolk colour also changed significantly according to the La Roche scale, from 9.6 ± 0.8 to 11.4 ± 0.8 (more orange). Feed supplementation did not lead to changes in the remaining analyzed parameters. A shelf life study, carried out for 28 days at room temperature, showed a decrease in eggs protein quality. In conclusion, eggs from hens fed with Nannochloropsis oceanica had a yolk colour more appealing to consumers and higher levels of EPA and DHA, allowing its classification as high in n-3 PUFA (CE nº 1924/2006).

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (9) ◽  
pp. e1009802
Sumeet A. Khetarpal ◽  
Cecilia Vitali ◽  
Michael G. Levin ◽  
Derek Klarin ◽  
Joseph Park ◽  

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are circulating reservoirs of fatty acids used as vital energy sources for peripheral tissues. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a predominant enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) lipolysis and TRL clearance to provide fatty acids to tissues in animals. Physiological and human genetic evidence support a primary role for LPL in hydrolyzing TRL TGs. We hypothesized that endothelial lipase (EL), another extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes lipoprotein phospholipids may also contribute to TRL metabolism. To explore this, we studied the impact of genetic EL loss-of-function on TRL metabolism in humans and mice. Humans carrying a loss-of-function missense variant in LIPG, p.Asn396Ser (rs77960347), demonstrated elevated plasma TGs and elevated phospholipids in TRLs, among other lipoprotein classes. Mice with germline EL deficiency challenged with excess dietary TG through refeeding or a high-fat diet exhibited elevated TGs, delayed dietary TRL clearance, and impaired TRL TG lipolysis in vivo that was rescued by EL reconstitution in the liver. Lipidomic analyses of postprandial plasma from high-fat fed Lipg-/- mice demonstrated accumulation of phospholipids and TGs harboring long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), known substrates for EL lipolysis. In vitro and in vivo, EL and LPL together promoted greater TG lipolysis than either extracellular lipase alone. Our data positions EL as a key collaborator of LPL to mediate efficient lipolysis of TRLs in humans and mice.

2021 ◽  
Chuhan Dai ◽  
Hao Wu ◽  
Xuejun Wang ◽  
Kankan Zhao ◽  
Zhenmei Lv

Abstract Background: 1,4-dioxane is an emerging wastewater contaminant with probable human carcinogenicity. Our current understanding of microbial interactions during 1,4-dioxane biodegradation process in mix cultures is limited. Here, we applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and co-occurrence network analyses to unraveling the microbial cooperation between degrader and non-degraders in an efficient 1,4-dioxane-degrading microbial community CH1.Results: The 1,4-dioxane degrading bacterium, Ancylobacter polymorphus ZM13, was isolated from CH1 and proved to be the key degrader because of the high relative abundance, highly expressed toluene monooxygenase genes tmoABCDEF and high betweenness centrality of networks. The strain ZM13 cooperated obviously with 6 bacterial genera in the network, among which Xanthobacter and Mesorhizobium were proved to be involved in the intermediate metabolism with responsible genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (adh), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldh), glycolate oxidase (glcDEF), glyoxylate carboligase (gcl), malate synthase (glcB) and 2-isopropylmalate synthase (leuA) upregulated. Also, 1,4-dioxane facilitated the shift of biodiversity and function of CH1, and those cooperators of CH1 cooperated with ZM13 in the way of providing amino acids or fatty acids and relieving environmental stresses to promote biodegradation.Conclusions: This study revealed the biodiversity, community structure, microbial functions and interactions in a microbial community CH1 during the efficient 1,4-dioxane degradation and proved the degrader Ancylobacter polymorphus ZM13 that isolated from CH1 was the key degrading bacterium. These results provide new insights into our understanding of how the key degrading bacterium interacted with cooperators in a 1,4-dioxane-degrading community, and has important implications for predicting microbial cooperation and constructing highly efficient synthetic 1,4-dioxane-degrading communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Boniface Pone Kamdem ◽  
Eutrophe Le Doux Kamto ◽  
Hugues Kamdem Paumo ◽  
Lebogang Maureen Katata-Seru ◽  
Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb ◽  

Background: Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants is an aromatic herb native to South America, but also distributed widely throughout Africa and Europe. This plant is traditionally used to treat various ailments including, pain and swellings, flu, parasitic diseases, and as analgesic, antipyretic, and wound healing. Phytochemical analyses of D. ambrosioides revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, fatty acids and miscellaneous compounds among others, which might be responsible for its modern pharmacological actions. Objective: The present work summarizes recent developments on phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal use, pharmacology, and toxicity of D. ambrosioides. A critical assessment of the literature information of D. ambrosioides is also presented. Methods: The available information on D. ambrosioides was collected through libraries and electronic databases [Scifinder, ACS, Scielo, Science direct, Pubmed (National Library of Medicine), Wiley, Springer, PROTA, Web of Science, Google Web, Yahoo search and Google scholar] from respective inception until january 2021. Results: More than 150 compounds, including terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, fatty acids, and miscellaneous compounds etc.. were identified from D. ambrosioides. D. ambrosioides exhibited a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, anticancer, insecticidal, antigiardial, among others. Metal nanoparticles synthesized from D. ambrosioides extracts presented enhanced pharmacological activities as compared to the crude plant extracts counterparts. Conclusion: D. ambrosioides is a promising medicinal plant, however, more in vivo experiments, cytotoxicity tests, and mechanisms of actions of its extracts and compounds are recommended to transubstantiate the ethnomedicinal claims of this plant into scientific rationale-based information.

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