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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Al-Bajuri , Salwa Ismail Abd al-Qadir

 C.   lazera was studied using some standard techniques employed in the study of vertebrate pituitary.   The pituitary gland is attached to the infundibular region of the brain by a cylindrical infundilbular stalk.   The gland is composed of two main divisions; the pars glandularis and the pars nervosa.   The former is subdivided into an anterior, middle and posterior glandular regions.   The anterior glandular region is composed mostly of clusters of acidophils which surround blood capillaries, giving the region a follicular appearance.   The middle region is composed of basophils, acidophils and chromophobes.   The distribution of the three types of cells has no definite pattern.   The basophils are characterized by possessing colloidal globules, and therefore such basophils are described as globular basophils.   The posterior region is formed mostly of dull acidophils, with few interspersed dull faint basophils.   The two types of cells are scattered singly or in groups arround the branches of the pars nervosa.   The pars nervosa, which is the continuation of the infundibular stalk, form a central core around which the three glandular regions of the pituitary gland are arranged.   The processes of the pars nervosa are elaborate, with a fanning root – like nature, in the posterior glandular region and scanty in both the anterior and middle glandular regions.   The pars nervosa appears as a fibrous tissue with scattered nuclei belonging to neuroglia cells.   It is characterized by the colloidal Herring materials, basophil and acidophilic glandular cells.   Infundilbular stalk, which link the floor of hypothalamus and the terminal zone of the anterior glandular region was found to be a thin lamina of nervious tissue with a layer of epindymal cell lining the third ventricle.   The middle glandular region was found to consist of three chromophils cells, only one type of acidophil was identified.   It took both OG and erythrosin.   The other two types were found to be basophilic and they were designated as type 2 and type 3.   Basophils type 3 were PAS, AF positive but AB negative.   The pars nervosa was found to be small, and contained more stainable neuro-secretory materials.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Muhammad Nauman Arshad ◽  
Simon Oppenheimer ◽  
Jaye Jeong ◽  
Bilge Buyukdemirtas ◽  
Janice R Naegele

GABAergic interneurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus regulate adult neurogenesis, including proliferation, migration, and maturation of new granule cells born in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), some adult-born granule cells migrate ectopically into the hilus, and these cells contribute to increased hyperexcitability and seizures. Yet, transplanting embryonic day 13.5 fetal mouse medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) GABAergic progenitors into the hippocampus of mice with TLE ameliorates spontaneous seizures, due in part, to increased postsynaptic inhibition of adult-born granule cells. Here, we asked whether MGE progenitor transplantation affects earlier stages of adult neurogenesis, by comparing patterns of neurogenesis in naive mice and epileptic (TLE) mice, with or without MGE transplants. In naive and TLE mice, transplanted MGE cells showed comparable migration and process outgrowth. However, in TLE mice with MGE transplants, fewer adult-born Type 3 progenitors migrated ectopically. Furthermore, more Type 3 progenitors survived and migrated into the granule cell layer (GCL), as determined by immunostaining for doublecortin or the thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). To determine whether MGE transplants affected earlier stages of adult neurogenesis, we compared proliferation in the SGZ two-hours after pulse labeling with BrdU in naive vs. TLE mice and found no significant differences. Furthermore, MGE progenitor transplantation had no effect on cell proliferation in the SGZ. Moreover, when compared to naive mice, TLE mice showed increases in inverted Type 1 progenitors and Type 2 progenitors, concomitant with a decrease in the normally oriented radial Type 1 progenitors. Strikingly, these alterations were abrogated by MGE transplantation. Thus, MGE transplants appear to reverse seizure-induced abnormalities in adult neurogenesis by increasing differentiation and radial migration of adult-born granule cell progenitors, outcomes that may ameliorate seizures.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Author(s):  
Everett Webster ◽  
Kyra W. Seiger ◽  
Susan B. Core ◽  
Amanda L. Collar ◽  
Hannah Knapp-Broas ◽  
...  

An effective vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis is urgently needed as infection rates continue to rise and C. trachomatis causes reproductive morbidity. An obligate intracellular pathogen, C. trachomatis employs a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) for host cell entry. The tip of the injectosome is composed of the protein CT584, which represents a potential target for neutralization with vaccine-induced antibody. Here, we investigate the immunogenicity and efficacy of a vaccine made of CT584 epitopes coupled to a bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP), a novel platform for Chlamydia vaccines modeled on the success of HPV vaccines. Female mice were immunized intramuscularly, challenged transcervically with C. trachomatis, and assessed for systemic and local antibody responses and bacterial burden in the upper genital tract. Immunization resulted in a 3-log increase in epitope-specific IgG in serum and uterine homogenates and in the detection of epitope-specific IgG in uterine lavage at low levels. By contrast, sera from women infected with C. trachomatis and virgin controls had similarly low titers to CT584 epitopes, suggesting these epitopes are not systemically immunogenic during natural infection but can be rendered immunogenic by the VLP platform. C. trachomatis burden in the upper genital tract of mice varied after active immunization, yet passive protection was achieved when immune sera were pre-incubated with C. trachomatis prior to inoculation into the genital tract. These data demonstrate the potential for antibody against the T3SS to contribute to protection against C. trachomatis and the value of VLPs as a novel platform for C. trachomatis vaccines.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao Li ◽  
Yunwen Ou ◽  
Danian Chen ◽  
Yaozhong Ding ◽  
...  

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), a novel circovirus, imposes great burdens on the global pig industry. The penside tests for detecting PCV3 are critical for assessing the epidemiological status and working out disease prevention and control programs due to the unavailability of a commercial vaccine. A one-step molecular assay based on visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) was developed for simple and rapid detection of PCV3. We compared its sensitivity and specificity with TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and applied the developed assay in the epidemiological study of (n = 407) pooled swine sera collected from almost the entire mainland China during the years 2017–2018. We also explored the feasibility of the vLAMP assay for detecting raw samples without a prior DNA isolation step to expand its application capability. Results showed that the vLAMP assay could reliably detect the PCV3 cap gene with a detection limit of 10 DNA copies equal to that of the Taqman qPCR assay. In the epidemiological study, the PCV3 positive detection rate for 407 swine pooled sera detected by the vLAMP assay was 37.35% (152/407), whereas it was 39.01% (159/407) for Taqman qPCR. For the detection method without genome extraction, the results kept satisfactory specificity (100%) but displayed lower sensitivity (100% for CT < 32), indicating the direct detection is not sensitive enough to discriminate the samples with low viral loads. The one-step vLAMP is a convenient, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic for penside detection and will enable the epidemiological surveillance of PCV3, which has widely spread in mainland China.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bipin P. Kulkarni ◽  
Kirti Ghargi ◽  
Chandrakala Shanmukhaiah ◽  
Shrimati D. Shetty

Introduction: Type 3 Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the least common but the most severe form of a disease, with a prevalence of about 0. 5 to 1 per million in Western countries. The prevalence of type 3 VWD in the developing countries, with a high degree of consanguinity, is about 6 per million. Moreover, due to underdiagnosis of the milder cases, the prevalence of type 3 VWD is about 50% of the cases. Rarely, some patients develop the Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) inhibitors, which may subsequently develop severe anaphylactic reactions on further exposure to the VWF containing factor replacement therapy. The prevalence of inhibitor development in patients with type 3 VWD has been shown to be in the range of 5.8 to 9.5%. In the absence of a gold standard assay for the quantitation of VWF inhibitors, a correct diagnosis and management of these patients are often challenging.Objectives: The objective of this study is to standardize the Bethesda assay for the VWF inhibitors and to estimate the VWD inhibitor titer in two cases of congenital type 3 VWD, which developed the VWF inhibitors.Results and Conclusions: We could successfully standardize the Bethesda assay for the quantitation of VWF inhibitors in two patients with congenital type 3 VWD with inhibitors.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vasileios Toulis ◽  
Ricardo Casaroli-Marano ◽  
Anna Camos-Carreras ◽  
Marc Figueras-Roca ◽  
Bernardo Sanchez-Dalmau ◽  
...  

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding CAG repeat in the ATXN3 gene. Because the ATXN3 protein regulates photoreceptor ciliogenesis and phagocytosis, we aimed to explore whether expanded polyQ ATXN3 impacts retinal function and integrity in SCA3 patients and transgenic mice. We evaluated the retinal structure and function in five patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 and in a transgenic mouse model of this disease (YACMJD84.2, Q84) using, respectively, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinogram (ERG). We further determined in the transgenic mice: a) the retinal expression pattern of ATXN3 and assessed the distribution of cones and rods by immunofluorescence (IF); and b) the retinal ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Some patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 in our cohort revealed: i) reduced central macular thickness indirectly correlated with disease duration; ii) decreased thickness of the macula and the ganglion cell layer, and reduced macula volume inversely correlated with disease severity (SARA score); and iii) electrophysiological dysfunction of cones, rods, and inner retinal cells. Transgenic mice replicated the human OCT and ERG findings with aged homozygous Q84/Q84 mice showing a stronger phenotype accompanied by further thinning of the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer and highly reduced cone and rod activities, thus supporting severe retinal dysfunction in these mice. In addition, Q84 mice showed progressive accumulation of ATXN3-positive aggregates throughout several retinal layers and depletion of cones alongside the disease course. TEM analysis of aged Q84/Q84 mouse retinas supported the IF ATXN3 aggregation findings by revealing the presence of high number of negative electron dense puncta in ganglion cells, inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers, and further showed thinning of the outer plexiform layer, thickening of the retinal pigment epithelium and elongation of apical microvilli. Our results indicate that retinal alterations detected by non-invasive eye examination using OCT and ERG could represent a biological marker of disease progression and severity in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
Piet Nuijten ◽  
Natalie Cleton ◽  
Jeroen van der Loop ◽  
Birgit Makoschey ◽  
Wilco Pulskens ◽  
...  

Bovine parainfluenza type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) may cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in very young calves, and therefore vaccination should induce protection at the youngest age and as quickly as possible. This can be achieved by intranasal vaccination with a vaccine containing live attenuated BRSV and BPIV3 virus strains. The objective of this study was to measure gene expression levels by means of RT-qPCR of proteins involved in the innate and adaptive immune response in the nasopharyngeal mucosae after administration of the above-mentioned vaccine and after challenge with BPIV3. Gene expression profiles were different between (i) vaccinated, (ii) nonvaccinated-challenged, and (iii) vaccinated-challenged animals. In nonvaccinated-challenged animals, expression of genes involved in development of disease symptoms and pathology were increased, however, this was not the case after vaccination. Moreover, gene expression patterns of vaccinated animals reflected induction of the antiviral and innate immune pathways as well as an initial Th1 (cytotoxic) cellular response. After challenge with BPIV3, the vaccinated animals were protected against nasal shedding of the challenge virus and clinical symptoms, and in parallel the expression levels of the investigated genes had returned to values that were found before vaccination. In conclusion, in comparison to the virulent wild-type field isolates, the two virus strains in the vaccine have lost their capacity to evade the immune response, resulting in the induction of an antiviral state followed by a very early activation of innate immune and antiviral responses as well as induction of specific cellular immune pathways, resulting in protection. The exact changes in the genomes of these vaccine strains leading to attenuation have not been identified. These data represent the real-life situation and can serve as a basis for further detailed research. This is the first report describing the effects on immune gene expression profiles in the nasal mucosae induced by intranasal vaccination with a bivalent, live BRSV-BPI3V vaccine formulation in comparison to wild-type infection with a virulent BPI3V strain.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-66
Author(s):  
Alessandro Castiglione ◽  
Claes Möller

Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic condition responsible for combined loss of hearing and vision. Balance disorders and bilateral vestibular areflexia are also observed in some cases. The syndrome was first described by Albrecht von Graefe in 1858, but later named by Charles Usher, who presented a large number of cases with hearing loss and retinopathy in 1914. USH has been grouped into three main clinical types: 1, 2, and 3, which are caused by mutations in different genes and are further divided into different subtypes. To date, nine causative genes have been identified and confirmed as responsible for the syndrome when mutated: MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH1G (SANS) for Usher type 1; USH2A, ADGRV1, and WHRN for Usher type 2; CLRN1 for Usher type 3. USH is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Digenic, bi-allelic, and polygenic forms have also been reported, in addition to dominant or nonsyndromic forms of genetic mutations. This narrative review reports the causative forms, diagnosis, prognosis, epidemiology, rehabilitation, research, and new treatments of USH.


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