AbstractSatellite data from the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) lakes project were used to examine the influence of climate on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). Nonparametric multiplicative regression and machine learning were used to explain Chl-a concentration trend and dynamics. The main parameters of importance were seasonality, interannual variation, lake level, water temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation, and antecedent rainfall. No evidence was found for an earlier onset of the summer phytoplankton bloom related to the earlier onset of warmer temperatures. Instead, a curvilinear relationship between Chl-a and the temperature length of season above 20°C (LOS) was found with longer periods of warmer temperature leading to blooms of shorter duration. We suggest that a longer period of warmer temperatures in the summer may result in earlier uptake of nutrients or increased calcite precipitation resulting in a shortening of the duration of phytoplankton blooms. The current scenario of increasing LOS of temperature with climate change may lead to an alteration of phytoplankton phenological cycles resulting in blooms of shorter duration in lakes where nutrients become limiting. Satellite-derived information on lake temperature and Chl-a concentration proved essential in detecting trends at appropriate resolution over time.
AbstractSmall rivers support high levels of biodiversity, being especially sensitive to the effects of global change. Temporal records of community composition in minimally impaired streams can be used to explore trends in biodiversity in response to climate change and natural temporal variation. We approached the comparison of two time periods (2003–2008 and 2016–2020) to study whether the composition of diatom assemblages changed over time in twenty-three streams of the mountain range of Picos de Europa (Northern Spain). The stream’s water chemistry indicated significant decreases in N_NO3− and P_PO43− content over time. In these minimally disturbed streams, the specific diatom community was dominated by Achnanthidium pyrenaicum, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Cocconeis euglypta. PERMANOVA analyses did not identify significant changes in diatom assemblage composition between periods or river types. Diatom indices (e.g. IPS, NORTIdiat) indicated high or good ecological status and relatively high alpha diversity values were found in these mountain rivers during the studied years. Although diversity and evenness showed a significant decrease over time, the temporal stability of the river-type diatom reference community between the two periods should be considered as an indicator of biodiversity persistence of high importance when monitoring the ecological status following the reference condition approach.