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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Vega-Aguayo ◽  
C. Drake ◽  
V. Guzmán ◽  
A. Mardones ◽  
I. Valdebenito ◽  

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258227
Tonny P. Tauro ◽  
Florence Mtambanengwe ◽  
Shensi Mpepereki ◽  
Paul Mapfumo

Recent advocacy for Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in smallholder farming systems in east and southern Africa show substantial evidence of increased and sustained crop yields associated with enhanced soil productivity. However, the impact ISFM on soil fungi has received limited attention, yet fungi play key roles in crop growth. Following total soil DNA extraction with ZR soil microbe miniprep kit, illumina sequencing was used to, examine the fungal communities (ITS1F) under a maize crop following co-application of organic nutrient resources including Crotalaria juncea, cattle manure and maize stover with inorganic fertilizers at three-time periods (T1-December, T2-January, and T3-February) in Zimbabwe. Ninety-five fungal species were identified that were assigned to Ascomycota (>90%), Basidiomycota (7%) and Zygomycota (1%). At T1, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were identified across treatments, with Ascomycota attaining > 93% frequency. Fungal succession was noted and involved reduction of Ascomycota coupled by increase in Basidiomycota under the different treatments. For example at T3, Basidiomycota increased to 34% while Ascomycota declined to 66% under manure but remained unchanged in other two organics. Pre-season mineral nitrogen (N) associated with the ‘Birch effect’ apparently influenced the fungal community structure at T1 while readily available fertilizer N was critical at T2 and T3. The low-quality maize stover promoted the presence of Exophiala sp SST 2011 and this was linked to N immobilization. The impact of N addition was more pronounced under medium (manure) to low-quality (maize stover) resources. Fungi required phosphorus (P) and N for survival while their proliferation was dependent on substrate availability linked to resource quality. Interactive-forward test indicated that soil available P and N were most influential (P < 0.05) factors shaping fungal communities. Co-application of medium to high quality organic and inorganic resources show promise as a sustainable entry point towards enhancing belowground fungal diversity critical in driving nutrient supply.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012910
Jonathan Broomfield ◽  
Micki Hill ◽  
Michela Guglieri ◽  
Michael Crowther ◽  
Keith Abrams

Objective:Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a rare progressive disease, which is often diagnosed in early childhood, and leads to considerably reduced life-expectancy; due to its rarity, research literature and patient numbers are limited. To fully characterise the natural history, it is crucial to obtain appropriate estimates of the life-expectancy and mortality rates of patients with DMD.Methods:A systematic review of the published literature on mortality in DMD up until July 2020 was undertaken, specifically focusing on publications in which Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves with age as a time-scale were presented. These were digitised and individual patient data (IPD) reconstructed. The pooled IPD were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and parametric survival analysis models. Estimates were also stratified by birth cohort.Results:Of 1177 articles identified, 14 publications met the inclusion criteria and provided data on 2283 patients, of whom 1049 had died. Median life-expectancy was 22.0 years (95% CI: 21.2, 22.4). Analyses stratifying by three time-periods in which patients were born showed markedly increased life-expectancy in more recent patient populations; patients born after 1990 have a median life-expectancy of 28.1 years (95% CI 25.1, 30.3).Conclusions:This paper presents a full overview of mortality across the lifetime of a patient with DMD, and highlights recent improvements in survival. In the absence of large-scale prospective cohort studies or trials reporting mortality data for patients with DMD, extraction of IPD from the literature provides a viable alternative to estimating life-expectancy for this patient population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (5) ◽  
pp. 736-746
T A Mulerova ◽  
M Yu Ogarkov ◽  
D P Tsygankova ◽  
Yu V Kazachek ◽  
O M Polikutina ◽  

Aim. To assess the indigenous small population of the Shor people in terms of the ethnic-specific development of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors during the epidemiological studies in the Mountain Shoria. Methods. The study was carried included the indigenous and non-indigenous population of the Mountain Shoria during two different time periods: the first period (19982002) 1215 people (550 indigenous Shors and 665 non-indigenous people) and the second period (20132017) 1409 people (901 and 508, respectively). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, arterial hypertension (AH) and ischemic heart disease (CHD) was studied. In the second period of the study, the genotype frequencies of the genes ACE (I/D, r 4340), AGT (c.803TC, rs699), AGTR1 (A1166C, rs5186), ADRB1 (c.145AG, Ser49Gly, rs1801252), ADRA2B (I/D, rs28365031), MTHFR (c.677CT, Ala222Val, rs1801133) and NOS3 (VNTR, 4b/4a) and their associations with arterial hypertension were identified. There was data on organ damage obtained among patients with high blood pressure (left ventricular myocardial hypertrophia, carotid arteries intima-media complex thickening, albumin level). Results. The first period of the studies showed that the Shors differed from the incoming population in an extremely low prevalence of lipid metabolism disorders, obesity, and an almost complete absence of diabetes mellitus. At the same time, there was a high prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The second period of the studies demonstrated significant differences between different ethnic cohorts according to the genetic passport towards a more favorable profile among the indigenous people. However, the Shor people with arterial hypertension had a more severe course of hypertensive disease, defined as frequent organ damage. In addition, the profile of a patient with coronary heart disease differed depending on the place of residence, in urban or rural. Epidemiological studies contribute to the acquisition of new knowledge about different ethnic groups, their lifestyles and agricultural practices, regions of residence, and the features of candidate gene polymorphism. This provides valuable material for individualizing the prevention and treatment of diseases. Conclusion. Ethnicity makes adjustments to the patient's profile; understanding the ethnic specificity allows developing targeted preventive measures, thereby preserving the peoples health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (10) ◽  
pp. e0000006
Malebogo Tlhajoane ◽  
Freedom Dzamatira ◽  
Noah Kadzura ◽  
Constance Nyamukapa ◽  
Jeffrey W. Eaton ◽  

As HIV treatment is expanded, attention is focused on minimizing attrition from care. We evaluated the impact of treat-all policies on the incidence and determinants of attrition amongst clients receiving ART in eastern Zimbabwe. Data were retrospectively collected from the medical records of adult patients (aged≥18 years) enrolled into care from July 2015 to June 2016—pre-treat-all era, and July 2016 to June 2017—treat-all era, selected from 12 purposively sampled health facilities. Attrition was defined as an absence from care >90 days following ART initiation. Survival-time methods were used to derive incidence rates (IRs), and competing risk regression used in bivariate and multivariable modelling. In total, 829 patients had newly initiated ART and were included in the analysis (pre-treat-all 30.6%; treat-all 69.4%). Incidence of attrition (per 1000 person-days) increased between the two time periods (pre-treat-all IR = 1.18 (95%CI: 0.90–1.56) versus treat-all period IR = 1.62 (95%CI: 1.37–1.91)). In crude analysis, patients at increased risk of attrition were those enrolled into care during the treat-all period, <34 years of age, WHO stage I at enrolment, and had initiated ART on the same day as HIV diagnosis. After accounting for mediating clinical characteristics, the difference in attrition between the pre-treat-all, and treat-all periods ceased to be statistically significant. In a full multivariable model, attrition was significantly higher amongst same-day ART initiates (aSHR = 1.47, 95%CI:1.05–2.06). Implementation of treat-all policies was associated with an increased incidence of ART attrition, driven largely by ART initiation on the same day as HIV diagnosis which increased significantly in the treat all period. Differentiated adherence counselling for patients at increased risk of attrition, and improved access to clinical monitoring may improve retention in care.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110474
Elinore J. Kaufman ◽  
Daniel Holena ◽  
George Koenig ◽  
Niels D. Martin ◽  
George O. Maish ◽  

Introduction The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led to stay-at-home (SAH) orders in Pennsylvania targeted at reducing viral transmission. Limitations in population mobility under SAH have been associated with decreased motor vehicle collisions (MVC) and related injuries, but the impact of these measures on severity of injury remains unknown. The goal of this study is to measure the incidence, severity, and outcomes of MVC-related injuries associated with SAH in Pennsylvania. Materials & Methods We conducted a retrospective geospatial analysis of MVCs during the early COVID-19 pandemic using a state-wide trauma registry. We compared characteristics of patients with MVC-related injuries admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers during SAH measures (March 21-July 31, 2020) with those from the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. We also compared incidence of MVCs for each zip code tabulation area (ZCTA) in Pennsylvania for the same time periods using geospatial mapping. Results Of 15,550 trauma patients treated during the SAH measures, 3486 (22.4%) resulted from MVCs. Compared to preceding years, MVC incidence decreased 10% under SAH measures with no change in mortality rate. However, in ZCTA where MVC incidence decreased, there was a 16% increase in MVC injury severity. Conclusions Stay-at-home orders issued in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pennsylvania were associated with significant changes in MVC incidence and severity. Identifying such changes may inform resource allocation decisions during future pandemics or SAH events.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Jared Arthur Coleman ◽  
Natalie Carrillo

As one of the many unique markets where the opportunity arose to utilize the COVID-19 pandemic to stimulate monetary growth and increase popularity, third-party delivery services made an interesting case to evaluate financial performance pre- and mid-pandemic. The primary purpose of this research was to determine whether the businesses GrubHub, UberEats, and DoorDash were successful in facilitating growth with the seemingly advantageous circumstances provided by the national emergency. Financial performance was evaluated utilizing economic key performance indicators (KPIs) for revenue, liquidity, and profitability. All data was collected from eight quarterly income statements and balance sheets from 2019 and 2020 for each company. Averages of the KPIs were computed for cumulative quarters prior to and including March 2020, after the announcement of COVID-19 restrictions, and the quarters subsequent to that date range; the mean values were then compared across both time periods. Results suggest an overall positive trend for DoorDash for all metrics and negative trend in terms of liquidity for UberEats and GrubHub. Furthermore, revenues for all three platforms possessed an increased expansion rate during COVID-19 within a range of 9.07-12.60%. Implications of this experiment include possible research of non-food delivery platforms that operate based on the sale of virtual products during the pandemic or further exploration of such companies as COVID-19 begins to subside.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaoye Qian ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Jue Wang ◽  
Shiyang Gong ◽  
Hao Zhou

Although empirical evidence has accumulated showing that group climate has a significant impact on employee voice, knowledge about how different types of climates may influence voice is limited. Drawing upon the theory of planned behavior, we develop and test a model that explains whether and how the two group climates, cooperation and sanction, differentially predict employee promotive and prohibitive voice. We test the hypotheses using data collected from a sample of 274 full-time employees nested in 58 workgroups across two time periods. The empirical results show that group climate predicts employee voice in different ways: Group cooperation climate has a positive effect on both types of employee voice, whereas group sanction climate shows a negative effect on promotive voice. Individuals’ psychological capital is a cross-level mediator in the relationship between group climate and employee voice. Employees’ prevention focus negatively moderates the relationship between psychological capital and employee voice. These results highlight the important effect of group climate on employee voice in organization and calls on managers to create a favorable environment to increase employees’ psychological capital and voice behaviors.

Gabriele Doblhammer ◽  
Daniel Kreft ◽  
Constantin Reinke

(1) Background: In the absence of individual level information, the aim of this study was to identify the regional key features explaining SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 deaths during the upswing of the second wave in Germany. (2) Methods: We used COVID-19 diagnoses and deaths from 1 October to 15 December 2020, on the county-level, differentiating five two-week time periods. For each period, we calculated the age-standardized COVID-19 incidence and death rates on the county level. We trained gradient boosting models to predict the incidence and death rates by 155 indicators and identified the top 20 associations using Shap values. (3) Results: Counties with low socioeconomic status (SES) had higher infection and death rates, as had those with high international migration, a high proportion of foreigners, and a large nursing home population. The importance of these characteristics changed over time. During the period of intense exponential increase in infections, the proportion of the population that voted for the Alternative for Germany (AfD) party in the last federal election was among the top characteristics correlated with high incidence and death rates. (4) Machine learning approaches can reveal regional characteristics that are associated with high rates of infection and mortality.

Cornelious Omwando Nyakundi ◽  
Isaac Kipkosgei Tum

A crossover design is a repeated measurements design such that each experimental unit receives different treatments during the different time periods. In a majority of bioequivalence studies, design and analysis of cross-over using classical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and test are normally associated with erroneous results. The Bayesian method is desirable in the analysis of crossover designs to eliminate errors associated with carryover effects. The objective of this study was to compare the Bayesian and the - test analysis methods on treatments and carryover effects for an optimal two treatments, five periods and four sequence C (2, 5, 4) design. The treatments and residual estimates were obtained using Best Linear Unbiased Estimation (BLUE) method. In the Bayesian method of analysis, the posterior quantities were obtained for the mean intervals of treatments and carry-over effects and the highest posterior density (HPD) graphs were plotted and interpreted using conditional probability statements. For validation purposes, the Bayesian method results were compared with the existing -tests results. From the Bayesian analysis, the probability of significant treatment difference in the presence of carryover effects was 1, while from the -test, the calculated value of 11.73 was greater than the two sided tabulated value at 95  level of significance. The two analysis methods implied significant differences in the treatment effects. In conclusion, it was established that Bayesian method of analysis can be used for bioequivalence analysis even when the carry-over effects are present and hence it is highly recommended for bioequivalence studies.

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