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2022 ◽  

Acoustic atmospheres can be fleeting, elusive, or short-lived. Sometimes they are constant, but more often they change from one moment to the next, forming distinct impressions each time we visit certain places. Stable or dynamic, acoustic atmospheres have a powerful effect on our spatial experience, sometimes even more so than architecture itself. This book explores the acoustic atmospheres of diverse architectural environments, in terms of scale, function, location, or historic period—providing an overview of how acoustic atmospheres are created, perceived, experienced, and visualized. Contributors explore how sound and its atmospheres transform architecture and space. Their essays demonstrate that sound is a tangible element in the design and staging of atmospheres and that it should become a central part of the spatial explorations of architects, designers, and urban planners. The Sound of Architecture will be of interest to architectural historians, theorists, students, and practicing architects, who will discover how acoustic atmospheres can be created without complex and specialized engineering. It will also be of value to scholars working in the field of history of emotions, as it offers evocative descriptions of acoustic atmospheres from diverse cultures and time periods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (s1) ◽  
Michał Paweł Michalak ◽  
Jack Cordes ◽  
Agnieszka Kulawik ◽  
Sławomir Sitek ◽  
Sławomir Pytel ◽  

Spatiotemporal modelling of infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves using a variety of epidemiological metrics such as regional proportion of cases and/or regional positivity rates. Although observing changes of these indices over time is critical to estimate the regional disease burden, the dynamical properties of these measures, as well as crossrelationships, are usually not systematically given or explained. Here we provide a spatiotemporal framework composed of six commonly used and newly constructed epidemiological metrics and conduct a case study evaluation. We introduce a refined risk estimate that is biased neither by variation in population size nor by the spatial heterogeneity of testing. In particular, the proposed methodology would be useful for unbiased identification of time periods with elevated COVID-19 risk without sensitivity to spatial heterogeneity of neither population nor testing coverage.We offer a case study in Poland that shows improvement over the bias of currently used methods. Our results also provide insights regarding regional prioritisation of testing and the consequences of potential synchronisation of epidemics between regions. The approach should apply to other infectious diseases and other geographical areas.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Andriette Bekker ◽  
Johannes T. Ferreira ◽  
Schalk W. Human ◽  
Karien Adamski

This research is inspired from monitoring the process covariance structure of q attributes where samples are independent, having been collected from a multivariate normal distribution with known mean vector and unknown covariance matrix. The focus is on two matrix random variables, constructed from different Wishart ratios, that describe the process for the two consecutive time periods before and immediately after the change in the covariance structure took place. The product moments of these constructed random variables are highlighted and set the scene for a proposed measure to enable the practitioner to calculate the run-length probability to detect a shift immediately after a change in the covariance matrix occurs. Our results open a new approach and provides insight for detecting the change in the parameter structure as soon as possible once the underlying process, described by a multivariate normal process, encounters a permanent/sustained upward or downward shift.

2022 ◽  
pp. oemed-2021-107879
Sarah A Buchan ◽  
Peter M Smith ◽  
Christine Warren ◽  
Michelle Murti ◽  
Cameron Mustard ◽  

ObjectivesThe objective of our study was to estimate the rate of workplace outbreak-associated cases of COVID-19 by industry in labour market participants aged 15–69 years who reported working the majority of hours outside the home in Ontario, Canada.MethodsWe conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of COVID-19 workplace outbreaks and associated cases reported in Ontario between 1 April 2020 and 31 March 2021. All outbreaks were manually classified into two-digit North American Industry Classification System codes. We obtained monthly denominator estimates from the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey to estimate the incidence of outbreak-associated cases per 100 000 000 hours among individuals who reported the majority of hours were worked outside the home. We performed this analysis across industries and in three distinct time periods.ResultsOverall, 12% of cases were attributed to workplace outbreaks among working-age adults across our study period. While incidence varied across the time periods, the five industries with the highest incidence rates across our study period were agriculture, healthcare and social assistance, food manufacturing, educational services, and transportation and warehousing.ConclusionsCertain industries have consistently increased the incidence of COVID-19 over the course of the pandemic. These results may assist in ongoing efforts to reduce transmission of COVID-19 by prioritising resources, as well as industry-specific guidance, vaccination and public health messaging.

2022 ◽  
pp. 216770262110626
Tal Yatziv ◽  
Almog Simchon ◽  
Nicholas Manco ◽  
Michael Gilead ◽  
Helena J. V. Rutherford

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a demanding caregiving context for parents, particularly during lockdowns. In this study, we examined parental mentalization, parents’ proclivity to consider their own and their child’s mental states, during the pandemic, as manifested in mental-state language (MSL) on parenting social media. Parenting-related posts on Reddit from two time periods in the pandemic in 2020, March to April (lockdown) and July to August (postlockdown), were compared with time-matched control periods in 2019. MSL and self–other references were measured using text-analysis methods. Parental mentalization content decreased during the pandemic: Posts referred less to mental activities and to other people during the COVID-19 pandemic and showed decreased affective MSL, cognitive MSL, and self-references specifically during lockdown. Father-specific subreddits exhibited strongest declines in mentalization content, whereas mother-specific subreddits exhibited smaller changes. Implications on understanding associations between caregiving contexts and parental mentalization, gender differences, and the value of using social-media data to study parenting and mentalizing are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Ann Caroline Danielsen ◽  
Marion MN Boulicault ◽  
Annika Gompers ◽  
Tamara Rushovich ◽  
Katharine MN Lee ◽  

In order to characterize how sex disparities in COVID-19 mortality evolved over time in New York State (NY), we analyzed sex-disaggregated data from the US Gender/Sex COVID-19 Data Tracker from March 14, 2020 to August 28, 2021. We defined six different time periods and calculated mortality rates by sex and mortality rate ratios, both cumulatively and for each time period separately. As of August 28, 2021, 19 227 (44.2%) women and 24 295 (55.8%) men died from COVID-19 in NY. 72.7% of the cumulative difference in the number of COVID-19 deaths between women and men was accrued between March 14 and May 4, 2020. During this period, the COVID-19 mortality rate ratio for men compared to women was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.52-1.61). In the five subsequent time periods, the corresponding ratio ranged between 1.08 (0.98-1.18) and 1.24 (1.15-1.34). While the cumulative mortality rate ratio of men compared to women was 1.34 (1.31-1.37), the ratio equals 1.19 (1.16-1.22) if deaths during the initial COVID-19 surge are excluded from the analysis. This article shows that in NY the magnitude of sex disparities in COVID-19 mortality was not stable across time. While the initial surge in COVID-19 mortality was characterized by stark sex disparities, these were greatly attenuated after the introduction of public health controls.

Sherika Antao ◽  
Ajit Karnik

AbstractNoninterest income (NII) is income generated by banks from sources other than interest payments. Studies conducted on the relationship between NII and bank risk for the USA and Europe have found that emphasis on income diversification lowers risk in European banks but exacerbates it in American banks. Current research on Asian banks has not led to a coherent view of the relationship between NII and bank risk. We employ data over 25 years for 24 Asian countries to examine this relationship. Using the GMM estimation approach we estimate equations for two time-periods, 1996–2007 and 2008–2018, to examine the NII-bank risk relationship in the presence of some controlling financial, macroeconomic and policy variables. Our results show that non-interest income worsens bank risk for all 24 countries as well as for sub-groups of countries. We also find that, by and large, economic growth improves bank risk while inflation above a threshold worsens it. Finally, our proxy measure for monetary policy improves bank risk though fiscal policy seems to have no effect.

2022 ◽  
Pascal Scherreiks ◽  
Martin M. Gossner ◽  
Didem Ambarlı ◽  
Manfred Ayasse ◽  
Nico Blüthgen ◽  

Abstract Context Current diversity and species composition of ecological communities can often not exclusively be explained by present land use and landscape structure. Historical land use may have considerably influenced ecosystems and their properties for decades and centuries. Objectives We analysed the effects of present and historical landscape structure on plant and arthropod species richness in temperate grasslands, using data from comprehensive plant and arthropod assessments across three regions in Germany and maps of current and historical land cover from three time periods between 1820 and 2016. Methods We calculated local, grassland class and landscape scale metrics for 150 grassland plots. Class and landscape scale metrics were calculated in buffer zones of 100 to 2000 m around the plots. We considered effects on total species richness as well as on the richness of species subsets determined by taxonomy and functional traits related to habitat use, dispersal and feeding. Results Overall, models containing a combination of present and historical landscape metrics showed the best fit for several functional groups. Comparing three historical time periods, data from the 1820/50s was among the most frequent significant time periods in our models (29.7% of all significant variables). Conclusions Our results suggest that the historical landscape structure is an important predictor of current species richness across different taxa and functional groups. This needs to be considered to better identify priority sites for conservation and to design biodiversity-friendly land use practices that will affect landscape structure in the future.

2022 ◽  
Rasoul Jani ◽  
Rahman Khatibi ◽  
Sina Sadeghfam ◽  
Elnaz Zarrinbal

Abstract A study of climate change scenarios is presented in this paper by projecting a set of recorded precipitation data into three future periods by statistical downscaling methods by employing LARS-WG using data from 7 synoptic stations. The study area covers the basin of Lake Urmia and its overlaps with two of its surrounding basins flowing to the Caspian Sea. The modelling is at two stages: Downscaling comprises: (i) use large-scale GCM models to provide climate variables (predictors); and (ii) downscale them to the local climatic variables for correlating with the observed timeseries (e.g. rainfall) for the period of T0: 1961-2001 - 40 years; Projecting comprises the derivation of precipitation values during the time periods of ; T1: 2011-2030), T2: 2046-2065 and T3: 2080-2099 at synoptic stations using three of standard scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. These values are then used to map the climate zoning, which show: (i) climates at T1 are still similar to T0 and if any difference, precipitation increases; but changes are likely at T2 and T3 periods; (ii) the climate is moving toward a peakier regime at the northern region but drier towards the central region; and (iii) precipitation is likely to decrease in some of the zones. Thus, the results underpin the need for more responsive policymaking and should this not be realised in the next 5 to 10 years, the future seems bleak, as the loss of Lake Urmia and the depletion of aquifers are likely to be permanent, inflicting immigration from the region.

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