interspecific competition
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Brooke Z. Torjman ◽  
Erika V. Iyengar

Abstract We examined the prevalence and shell use of two species of hermit crabs (Pagurus granosimanus and Pagurus beringanus) in exposed and protected microhabitats at five sites in the rocky temperate intertidal on San Juan Island, Washington, to compare present habitat partitioning and potential interspecific competition to that reported nearly 50 years ago. We found that, in contrast to previous findings, the two species of hermit crabs overlapped extensively at some sites, typically those with less wave action. While the hermit crabs typically inhabited certain types of shells significantly more than others, and that use was congruent across microhabitats and species of hermit crabs at the same site, the dominant domicile differed substantially across sites. We provide a more complete ranking of shell use than previous authors and note site-specific dominant shell use. We conclude that previous habitat partitioning by depth may have weakened at protected sites. We hypothesize that increasing temperatures have caused P. granosimanus to expand its range deeper into the intertidal, which may increase the degree of interspecific competition for shells at the edge of the species’ tidal height range, where they overlap. Whether the habitat shift by this hermit crab is due to recent alterations in climate (particularly elevated temperatures, ocean acidification and lower local open ocean salinity) is unknown, but warrants further study.

Jared R. Gabriel ◽  
Jessica Reid ◽  
Le Wang ◽  
Thomas J. Mozdzer ◽  
Dennis F. Whigham ◽  

2021 ◽  
Pedro Horta ◽  
Helena Raposeira ◽  
Adrián Baños ◽  
Carlos Ibáñez ◽  
Orly Razgour ◽  

Abstract Cryptic species that coexist in sympatry are likely to simultaneously experience strong competition and hybridization. The first phenomenon would lead to character displacement, whereas the second can potentially promote morphological similarity through adaptive introgression. The main goal of this work was to investigate the effect of introgressive hybridization on the morphology of cryptic Iberian Eptesicus bats when facing counteracting evolutionary forces from interspecific competition. We found substantial overlap both in dentition and in wing morphology traits, though mainly in individuals in sympatry. The presence of hybrids contributes to a fifth of this overlap, with hybrids showing traits with intermediate morphometry. Thus, introgressive hybridization may contribute to species adaptation to trophic and ecological space responding directly to the macro-habitats characteristics of the sympatric zone and to local prey availability. On the other hand, fur shade tended to be browner and brighter in hybrids than parental species. Colour differences could result from partitioning of resources as an adaptation to environmental factors such as roost and microhabitats. We argue that a balance between adaptive introgression and niche partitioning shapes species interactions with the environment through affecting morphological traits under selection.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1704
Bangli Wu ◽  
Yun Guo ◽  
Minhong He ◽  
Xu Han ◽  
Lipeng Zang ◽  

Plant competition affects belowground ecological processes, such as litter decomposition and nutrient release. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an essential role in plant growth and litter decomposition potentially. However, how plant competition affects the nutrient release of litter through AM fungi remains unclear especially for juvenile plants. In this study, a competitive potting experiment was conducted using juvenile seedlings of Broussonetia papyrifera and Carpinus pubescens from a karst habitat, including the intraspecific and interspecific competition treatments. The seedlings were inoculated by AM fungus or not inoculated, and the litter mixtures of B. papyrifera and C. pubescens were added into the soil or not added. The results were as follows: Litter addition significantly increased the root mycorrhizal colonization of two species in intraspecific competition. AM fungus significantly increased the biomass of B. papyrifera seedings and nitrogen release and decreased nitrogen concentration and N/P ratio of litter and further improved the total nitrogen and N/P ratio of soil under litter. The interspecific competition interacting with AM fungus was beneficial to the biomass accumulation of B. papyrifera and improvement of soil nutrients under litter. However, intraspecific competition significantly promoted nutrient releases via AM fungus. In conclusion, we suggest that AM fungi endow greater plant biomass and soil nutrients through interspecific competition, while intraspecific competition prefers to release the nutrients of litter.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bochra Kammoun ◽  
Etienne-Pascal Journet ◽  
Eric Justes ◽  
Laurent Bedoussac

Ensuring food security for a world population projected to reach over nine billion by 2050 while mitigating the environmental impacts and climate change represent the major agricultural challenges. Diversification of the cropping systems using notably cereal–legume mixtures is one key pathway for such agroecological intensification. Indeed, intercropping is recognised as a practice having the potential to increase and stabilise the yields in comparison with sole crops while limiting the use of inputs notably when species exploit resources in a complementary way. However, predicting intercropped species grain yield remains a challenge because the species respond to competition through complex genotype x cropping mode interactions. Here, we hypothesised that the grain yield achieved by a cultivar in low nitrogen input durum wheat–grain legume intercrops (ICs) could be estimated using a few simple variables. The present work is based on a 2-year field experiment carried out in southwestern France using two durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.), four winter pea (Pisum sativum L.), and four winter faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes with contrasting characteristics, notably in terms of height and precocity, to explore a wide range of durum wheat–grain legume phenotypes combinations to generate variability in terms of yield and species proportion. The major result is that the yield of durum wheat–grain legume IC component in low nitrogen input conditions could be correctly estimated from only three variables: (i) wheat cultivar full density sole crop (SC) yield, (ii) legume cultivar half density sole crop (SC½) yield, and (iii) an indicator of legume cultivar response to interspecific competition. The latter variable, the interspecific interaction index (IE), reveals cultivars' competitive abilities and tolerance to competition. However, to propose generic IC design and management procedures, further mechanistic understanding is required to better understand the links between tolerance to interspecific competition and cultivar phenotype characteristics. In particular, a special emphasis on the grain legume is needed as their response to interspecific competition appears less predictable than that of durum wheat. Cultivar choice is a key element to optimise the functional complementarity and subsequent IC advantages. This work proposes a simple tool to assist the design of specific breeding programs for cultivars ideotypes adapted to intercropping.

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