mountain range
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2022 ◽  
Vol 198 ◽  
pp. 104679
D. Carvajal ◽  
M. Mora-Carreño ◽  
C. Sandoval ◽  
S. Espinoza

2022 ◽  
Jatishwor Singh Irungbam ◽  
Alena Bartoňová Sucháčková ◽  
Martin Konvička ◽  
Zdenek Faltýnek Fric

Abstract We retrieved shapes of elevational species richness gradients (unimodal, decreasing, increasing) from 64 publications, studying Himalayan elevation patterns. We covered both plants and animals, and tested the hypothesis that unimodal gradients, explicable by the geometric mid-domain effect, prevail in the mountains, whereas decreasing or increasing gradients result from studying only short sections of entire altitudinal ranges. Multivariate canonical correspondence analysis was used to relate gradient shapes to their altitude ranges, geography positions, and taxa studied. Across taxa, most of the Himalayan altitudinal gradient display a unimodal shape, with a peak of diversity situated at ca 2500 m a.s.l. for plants, and 2200 m a.s.l. for animals. The gradient shapes were attributable to three intercorrelated predictors: vertical range, maximum elevation, and mean elevation of the gradients. Studies covering sufficiently broad altitudinal range returned unimodal gradients. Studies from the Earth’s highest mountain range reveal that surveys covering substantial parts of the elevational range of the mountains result in unimodal elevational gradients, whereas declining or increasing species richness gradients result from incomplete elevation range sampling.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
John Erich Christian ◽  
Erin Whorton ◽  
Evan Carnahan ◽  
Michelle Koutnik ◽  
Gerard Roe

Abstract Mountain glaciers have response times that govern retreat due to anthropogenic climate change. We use geometric attributes to estimate individual response times for 383 glaciers in the Cascade mountain range of Washington State, USA. Approximately 90% of estimated response times are between 10 and 60 years, with many large glaciers on the short end of this distribution. A simple model of glacier dynamics shows that this range of response times entails consequential differences in recent and ongoing glacier changes: glaciers with decadal response times have nearly kept pace with anthropogenic warming, but those with multi-decadal response times are far from equilibrium, and their additional committed retreat stands well beyond natural variability. These differences have implications for changes in glacier runoff. A simple calculation highlights that transient peaks in area-integrated melt, either at the onset of forcing or due to variations in forcing, depend on the glacier's response time and degree of disequilibrium. We conclude that differences in individual response times should be considered when assessing the state of a population of glaciers and modeling their future response. These differences in response can arise simply from a range of different glacier geometries, and the same basic principles can be expected in other regions as well.

Oecologia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Joséphine Couet ◽  
Emma-Liina Marjakangas ◽  
Andrea Santangeli ◽  
John Atle Kålås ◽  
Åke Lindström ◽  

AbstractClimate change is pushing species ranges and abundances towards the poles and mountain tops. Although many studies have documented local altitudinal shifts, knowledge of general patterns at a large spatial scale, such as a whole mountain range, is scarce. From a conservation perspective, studying altitudinal shifts in wildlife is relevant because mountain regions often represent biodiversity hotspots and are among the most vulnerable ecosystems. Here, we examine whether altitudinal shifts in birds’ abundances have occurred in the Scandinavian mountains over 13 years, and assess whether such shifts are related to species’ traits. Using abundance data, we show a clear pattern of uphill shift in the mean altitude of bird abundance across the Scandinavian mountains, with an average speed of 0.9 m per year. Out of 76 species, 7 shifted significantly their abundance uphill. Altitudinal shift was strongly related to species’ longevity: short-lived species showed more pronounced uphill shifts in abundance than long-lived species. The observed abundance shifts suggest that uphill shifts are not only driven by a small number of individuals at the range boundaries, but the overall bird abundances are on the move. Overall, the results underscore the wide-ranging impact of climate change and the potential vulnerability of species with slow life histories, as they appear less able to timely respond to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

2022 ◽  
Francesca Pittino ◽  
Roberto Ambrosini ◽  
Michael Seeger ◽  
Roberto Sergio Azzoni ◽  
Guglielmina Diolaiuti ◽  

Abstract Cryoconite holes, ponds full of melting water with a sediment on the bottom, are hotspots of biodiversity on glacier surface and host dynamic micro-ecosystems on these extreme environments. They have been extensively investigated in different areas of the world (e.g., Arctic, Antarctic, Alps, and Himalaya), but no study so far has described the bacterial communities of the glaciers in the Andes, the world longest mountain range. In this study, we start filling this gap of knowledge and describe the bacterial communities of Southern Andes in three small (< 2 km2) high elevation (< 4200 m a.s.l.) glaciers of Central Andes (Iver, East Iver and Morado glaciers) and two large (> 85 km2) glaciers in Patagonian Andes (Exploradores and Perito Moreno glaciers) whose ablation tongues reach low altitude (< 300 m a.s.l). Results show that the bacterial communities were generally similar to those observed in the cryoconite holes of other continents. Indeed, the most abundant orders were Burkholderiales, Cytophagales, Sphingobacteriales, Actinomycetales, Pseudomonadales, Rhodospiarillales, Rhizobiales, Sphingomonadales and Bacteroidales. However, the bacterial communities differed between glaciers and both water pH and O2 concentration influenced the bacterial community composition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 193 ◽  
pp. 1
Sébastien Chevrot ◽  
Matthieu Sylvander ◽  
Antonio Villaseñor ◽  
Jordi Díaz ◽  
Laurent Stehly ◽  

This contribution reviews the challenges of imaging collisional orogens, focusing on the example of the Pyrenean domain. Indeed, important progresses have been accomplished regarding our understanding of the architecture of this mountain range over the last decades, thanks to the development of innovative passive imaging techniques, relying on a more thorough exploitation of the information in seismic signals, as well as new seismic acquisitions. New tomographic images provide evidence for continental subduction of Iberian crust beneath the western and central Pyrénées, but not beneath the eastern Pyrénées. Relics of a Cretaceous hyper-extended and segmented rift are found within the North Pyrenean Zone, where the imaged crust is thinner (10–25 km). This zone of thinned crust coincides with a band of positive Bouguer anomalies that is absent in the Eastern Pyrénées. Overall, the new tomographic images provide further support to the idea that the Pyrénées result from the inversion of hyperextended segmented rift systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 108504
Honglin Li ◽  
Peng Luo ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Chuan Luo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 178-191
Basavarajaiah D.M ◽  
Narasimhamurthy B. ◽  
Ganesh Prasad T.S ◽  
Jaya Naik ◽  

The Western Ghats, also known as Sahyadri is a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square km parallel to the Western coast of the Indian Peninsula .It traverses the states of Kerala , Tamilnadu , Karnataka ,Goa ,Maharashtra, and Gujarat. It is a UNESCO world heritage site and is one of the eight hottest hot spots of biological diversity in the world. It covers 5000 species of flowering plants ,139 mammals species ,508 birds species, and 179 amphibian species ,many discovered species live in the Western Ghats . At least 325 globally threatened species occur in this region. The region glitches many anthropogenic intervention like illegal mining, the establishment of human settlement and deforestation etc. From a Historical view, the Western Ghats is the home for tribes > 50 types of tribes are living in the Western Ghats from the anecdotal period. The majority of the tribal are largely dependent on forests for their livelihood. After the implementation of the forest policy , the tribal livelihood status really worsened in the Western Ghats , they are unable to meet the daily requirement of recommended food intake >2500 Kcl. After post-independence (73years ) of India many development programs are implemented in the tribal area for improvement of livelihood status , but as of calendar date they are facing many problems like economic instability , lack of literacy , lower level of quality of life and not politically empowered . In this context , in the interest of policy implication at the tribal area , the present study was undertaken to study the socioeconomic status and spatial distribution of tribal in the Western Ghats. This study practically helps the policymakers , planners of the policy, and researcher scholars to extrapolate the tribal settlement through the geo-spacing tag of tribal , socio-economic level, Knowledge and attitude of Conservation of Western Ghats at the population level .

Ю.И. Гутарёва

В статье исследуются особенности корейской пейзажной живописи, развитие которой с начала XVIII века оказывается неразрывно связано со знаменитой горной цепью Корейского полуострова Кымгансан. Утвердившись как центральный образ в пейзажах «подлинного вида», горы Кымган со временем приобретают значение не только художественного феномена, но и знакового национального символа родной земли в корейском культурном сознании, оставаясь для художников воплощением естественных красот и сплетением разнообразной символики. Цель статьи — определить значимость образа гор Кымган в корейском изобразительном искусстве как выразителя национальной самобытности искусства Кореи и хранителя художественно-ценностных традиций. В статье изложен анализ произведений корейских художников с XVIII столетия и до наших дней. Исследуются произведения ряда современных северокорейских и южнокорейских художников, чьи работы, разные по стилю и технике исполнения, объединяет единство мировосприятия гор Кымган как духовного источника, репрезентируя стремление к этнической аутентичности, возрождение традиций и выражение патриотизма в современном искусстве Республики Корея и КНДР. Предлагается обзор тенденций в корейском изобразительном искусстве, где в данном образе проявился национальный подход, натурное видение природы родной страны и творческое переосмысление открытий великих корейских пейзажистов в контексте адаптации новых художественно-выразительных особенностей в рамках традиционной системы дальневосточной живописи тушью и творческих экспериментов с разнообразными техниками. В заключение делается вывод о важности художественного образа гор Кымган, который, утвердившись в корейском пейзаже в XVIII веке, стал прочной основой для развития корейской живописи современного периода, демонстрируя не только приверженность традициям, но и способность к новациям как в приобретении новых символических оттенков в его прочтении, так и в расширении творческих поисков для выражения его эстетического идеала в картине мира современности. The article examines the features of Korean landscape painting, the development of which since the beginning of the 18th century is inextricably linked with the famous mountain range of the Korean Peninsula Kumgangsan (Diamond Mountains). Having established itself as the central image in landscapes of “true appearance”, the Kumgang Mountains over time acquire the significance of not only an artistic phenomenon, but also an iconic national symbol of the native land in the Korean cultural consciousness, remaining for artists the embodiment of natural beauties and the interweaving of various symbols. The purpose of the article is to determine the significance of the image of the Kumgang Mountains in Korean fine art of past and present eras, as an exponent of the national identity of Korean art and a keeper of artistic value traditions. The main objective of the article is to study the image of the Kumgang Mountains based on the analysis of the works of Korean artists from the 18th century to the present day, with the definition of its role and place in the contemporary fine arts of Korea. The article analyzes the works of a number of modern North Korean and South Korean artists, different in style and technique of execution, but similar in perception of the Kumgang mountains as a spiritual source, representing the desire for ethnic authenticity, the revival of traditions and the expression of patriotism in contemporary art of the Republic of Korea and the DPRK. The article provides an overview of trends in Korean painting, where this image manifests a national approach, a natural vision of the native country and a creative rethinking of the discoveries of the great Korean landscape painters in the context of adapting new artistic and expressive features within the traditional system of Far Eastern ink painting and creative experiments with various techniques. It is concluded that the artistic image of the Kumgang mountains is important as it has established itself in the Korean landscape in the 18th century, and become a solid foundation for the development of Korean painting in the modern period, demonstrating not only adherence to traditions, but also the ability to innovate, both in acquiring new symbolic shades, and expanding artistic and expressive means to display its aesthetic ideal in the picture of the world of our time.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Fernando García-Solís ◽  
Jaime R. Rau ◽  
Edwin J. Niklitschek

The two mammalian carnivores, puma (Puma concolor) and South American grey fox (Lycalopex griseus) were studied, in a remote area located in the humid temperate forest of the coastal range of southern Chile. A total of six locations were selected in three landscapes: pre-mountain range, mountain range, and coast. The chosen study locations are relevant because they correspond to threatened areas with different levels of human intervention., so they offer the ideal setting for studying how different species of carnivores respond to both human presence and activities. A dataset was collected for 24 months during 2016–2018 through photo-trapping (13 camera traps placed along 50 photo-trap stations). Wes estimated the apparent occurrence and relative abundance index (RAI) of the fauna registered, by means of generalized linear models to contrast those of an apex predator, such as the puma and a sympatric mesopredator, the South American grey fox, across the three landscapes. The ecological variables assessed were the RAI of the other carnivore considered, exotic carnivores such as dogs and cats, human intervention, farmland effect, prey availability, and habitat quality. The primary hypothesis was that the apparent occurrence and RAI of puma and fox would be positively associated with the RAI of prey and livestock and negatively with human intervention. On the other hand, the secondary hypothesis dealt with the interactions between puma and fox faced with different degrees of human intervention. The results showed that the apparent occurrence of the puma was statistically explained by location only, and it was highest at the mountain range. The apparent occurrence of foxes was explained by both puma apparent occurrence and relative integrated anthropization index (INRA), being highest in the pre-mountain range. Concerning the RAI of pumas, high values were yielded by location and fox RAI. For the RAI of foxes, they were location, puma RAI, and INRA. It can be suggested that eucalyptus plantations from the pre-mountain range could offer an adequate habitat for the puma and the fox, but not the coastal range, as the mountain range could be acting as a biological barrier. Due to the nature of the data, it was not possible to detect any relevant effect between the two carnivores’ considered, between their respective preys, or the very abundant presence of dogs.

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