Topographical Orientation in Patients with Acquired Brain Damage Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the abilities of topographical orientation in patients with acquired brain damage. The first study investigates the correlation between wayfinding in a hospital setting and various sensory and cognitive deficits as well as the predictability of navigating performance by specific tests, self-rating of orientation ability and rating by staff. The investigation included 35 neuropsychological patients as well as 9 control subjects. Several variables predicted the wayfinding performance reasonably well: memory tests like the one introduced by Muramoto and a subtest of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, the Map Reading Test and the rating by hospital staff. Patients with hemianopia experienced significant difficulty in the task.
Objective: Acute anorexia nervosa (AN) leads to reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume in the brain, which however improves again upon restoration of weight. Yet little is known about the extent and clinical correlates of these brain changes, nor do we know much about the time-course and completeness of their recovery. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all magnetic resonance imaging studies involving volume analyses of the brain in both acute and recovered AN. Results: We identified structural neuroimaging studies with a total of 214 acute AN patients and 177 weight-recovered AN patients. In acute AN, GM was reduced by 5.6% and WM by 3.8% compared to healthy controls (HC). Short-term weight recovery 2–5 months after admission resulted in restitution of about half of the GM aberrations and almost full WM recovery. After 2–8 years of remission GM and WM were nearly normalized, and differences to HC (GM: –1.0%, WM: –0.7%) were no longer significant, although small residual changes could not be ruled out. In the qualitative review some studies found GM volume loss to be associated with cognitive deficits and clinical prognosis. Conclusions: GM and WM were strongly reduced in acute AN. The completeness of brain volume rehabilitation remained equivocal.