bipolar disorder
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 100214
Zeinab El Nagar ◽  
Heba H. El Shahawi ◽  
Safeya M. Effat ◽  
Mona M. El Sheikh ◽  
Ahmed Adel ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 78-80
Brian P. Keane ◽  
Gennady Erlikhman ◽  
Megan Serody ◽  
Steven M. Silverstein

Yashaswini Kunjali Ajeeth Kumar ◽  
Adithya Kishore Saxena

In the present state of health and wellness, mental illness is always deemed less importance compared to other forms of physical illness. In reality, mental illness causes serious multi-dimensional adverse effect to the subject with respect to personal life, social life, as well as financial stability. In the area of mental illness, bipolar disorder is one of the most prominent type which can be triggered by any external stimulation to the subject suffering from this illness. There diagnosis as well as treatment process of bipolar disorder is very much different from other form of illness where the first step of impediment is the correct diagnosis itself. According to the standard body, there are classification of discrete forms of bipolar disorder viz. type-I, type-II, and cyclothymic. Which is characterized by specific mood associated with depression and mania. However, there is no study associated with mixed-mood episode detection which is characterized by combination of various symptoms of bipolar disorder in random, unpredictable, and uncertain manner. Hence, the model contributes to obtain granular information with dynamics of mood transition. The simulated outcome of the proposed system in MATLAB shows that resulting model is capable enough for detection of mixed mood episode precisely

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.

2022 ◽  
Caroline Wyatt

Bipolar disorder, like many neuropsychiatric conditions, can be studied from a number of perspectives; from observation of behaviour, to study of cognitive dysfunction, through to changes at the molecular and genetic level. A consequence of this way of working is that there is inadequate communication between different levels of analysis, such that insufficient thought is given to whether a theoretical model derived from behavioural work fits with neurobiological data, and vice versa. Such limitations represent a key limiting factor in successful translation. Therefore, this paper takes a dominant theoretical model of bipolar disorder, based on that by Gray (1994) and developed by Alloy et al., (2015) as a basis to propose that the foundational pathology in bipolar is reward hypersensitivity, and to review how recent diverse neurobiological, cognitive and behavioural findings fit with this understanding. Executive Function deficits, partially derived from heritable structural changes are suggested as a foundation through which reward hypersensitivity develops to disorder, and CANA1C polymorphism-induced hyperactivity, further serves to drive the system towards reward seeking goals, through interaction with dopaminergic systems. This action is supplemented by a genetic predisposition for cognitive regulatory dysfunction, leading to improper modulation of emotive and reward networks. Specifically, deficits in top-down limbic modulation leads to behaviours disproportionally driven by limbic and reward circuitry; this pathology strengths over time through use. This therefore eventually results in substantial regional disconnect, reflected in epigenetic changes to neurotransmitters and observable histological changes.

2022 ◽  
Abraham Nunes ◽  
Selena Singh ◽  
Jared Allman ◽  
Suzanna Becker ◽  
Abigail Ortiz ◽  

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mood disorder involving recurring (hypo)manic and depressive episodes. The inherently temporal nature of BD has inspired its conceptualization using dynamical systems theory, which is a mathematical framework for understanding systems that evolve over time. In this paper we provide a critical review of dynamical systems models of BD. Owing to heterogeneity of methodologies and experimental designs in computational modeling, we designed a structured approach to guide our review in a fashion that parallels the appraisal of animal models by their Face, Predictive, and Construct Validity. This tool, the Validity Appraisal Guide for Computational Models (VAG-CM) is not an absolute estimate of validity, but rather a guide for more objective appraisal of models in this review. We identified 26 studies published before November 18, 2021 that proposed generative dynamical systems models of time-varying signals in BD. Two raters independently applied the VAG-CM to included studies, obtaining a mean Cohen's kappa of 0.55 (95% CI [0.45, 0.64]) prior to establishing consensus ratings. Consensus VAG-CM ratings revealed three model/study clusters: data-driven models with face validity, theory-driven models with predictive validity, and theory-driven models lacking all forms of validity. We conclude that future models should be developed using a hybrid approach that first operationalizes BD features of interest using empirical data (a data-driven approach), followed by explanations of those features using generative models with components that are homologous to physiological or psychological systems involved in BD (a theory-driven approach).

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 311-314
Ambu Pandey ◽  
Kamal Narayan Kalita ◽  
Aprajeeta Baruah

Bipolar Disorder is a major mental illness characterized by episodic occurrence of mood symptoms which can be of mania, depression or a mixed episode. The role of Uric Acid in the etiopathogenesis of episodic mental illnesses might be considered recognized long back in 19th century. Lithium was used as treatment for gouty arthritis and that in some cases helped to control mental illnesses. Multiple role of uric acid in the Central Nervous System have been recognized now. In the present study 30 patients in manic episodes were included and their serum Uric Acid level was compared to age and sex matched healthy controls twice at the interval of three weeks. It was found that Uric Acid level of cases was significantly higher than in controls before the initiation of treatment. Uric Acid level of manic group showed a significant decline after three weeks of treatment initiation. There was no significant change in Uric Acid level of control group after three weeks Serum Uric Acid levels are elevated during manic phase of Bipolar Disorder and decreases after initiation of treatment. There may be more research to find whether uric acid can be considered a biomarker for Bipolar illnesses and also an indicator for treatment response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 928
Isao Ishii ◽  
Shotaro Kamata ◽  
Saki Ito ◽  
Aya Shimonaga ◽  
Maika Koizumi ◽  

Methionine (Met) is considered the most toxic amino acid in mammals. Here, we investigated biochemical and behavioral impacts of ad libitum one-week feeding of high-Met diets on mice. Adult male mice were fed the standard rodent diet that contained 0.44% Met (1×) or a diet containing 16 graded Met doses (1.2×–13×). High-Met diets for one-week induced a dose-dependent decrease in body weight and an increase in serum Met levels with a 2.55 mM peak (versus basal 53 µM) on the 12×Met diet. Total homocysteine (Hcy) levels were also upregulated while concentrations of other amino acids were almost maintained in serum. Similarly, levels of Met and Hcy (but not the other amino acids) were highly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluids of mice on the 10×Met diet; the Met levels were much higher than Hcy and the others. In a series of behavioral tests, mice on the 10×Met diet displayed increased anxiety and decreased traveled distances in an open-field test, increased activity to escape from water soaking and tail hanging, and normal learning/memory activity in a Y-maze test, which were reflections of negative/positive symptoms and normal cognitive function, respectively. These results indicate that high-Met ad libitum feeding even for a week can induce bipolar disorder-like disease models in mice.

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