Alzheimer's Disease
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2021 ◽  
Vol 157 ◽  
pp. 106864
Silvia Alemany ◽  
Marta Crous-Bou ◽  
Natalia Vilor-Tejedor ◽  
Marta Milà-Alomà ◽  
Marc Suárez-Calvet ◽  

Ping Lin ◽  
Junyu Sun ◽  
Qi Cheng ◽  
Yue Yang ◽  
Dennis Cordato ◽  

Gerontology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Fatemeh Heidari ◽  
George Ansstas ◽  
Farzam Ajamian

<b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> In despite of conflicting results among different ethnic groups, the rs3865444 of CD33 gene has previously been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD).This study was aimed to evaluate the association between rs3865444 SNP with LOAD occurrence, and to investigate whether CD33 mRNA expression will change in the leukocytes of peripheral blood in LOAD patients. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The rs3865444 polymorphism was genotyped in 233 LOAD and 238 control subjects using the Tetra-ARMS-PCR method. CD33 mRNAs expression in leukocytes were assessed and analyzed using the real-time qPCR method. We used in silico approach to analyze potential effects imparted by rs3865444 polymorphism in LOAD pathogenesis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Our results show a significant increase in CD33 mRNA expression levels in white blood cells of LOAD patients, however, the association between CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism and LOAD was found to be not significant. We also noticed that LOAD patients with the C/A genotype had higher CD33 mRNA levels in their peripheral blood than those of the control group. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> rs3865444, located upstream of the 5′CD33 coding region, might positively influence CD33 mRNAs expression in leukocytes of LOAD versus healthy people. This is likely to happen through interfering rs3865444 (C) with the functional activity of several other transcription factors given that rs3865444 is in linkage disequilibrium with other functional polymorphisms in this coding region according to an in silico study. We propose that CD33 mRNAs elevation in peripheral immune cells – as a potential biomarker in LOAD – is related to peripheral immune system impairment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rong Zhou ◽  
Bin Ji ◽  
Yanyan Kong ◽  
Limei Qin ◽  
Wuwei Ren ◽  

Neuroinflammation play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Advances in molecular imaging using positron emission tomography have provided insights into the time course of neuroinflammation and its relation with Alzheimer’s disease central pathologies in patients and in animal disease models. Recent single-cell sequencing and transcriptomics indicate dynamic disease-associated microglia and astrocyte profiles in Alzheimer’s disease. Mitochondrial 18-kDa translocator protein is the most widely investigated target for neuroinflammation imaging. New generation of translocator protein tracers with improved performance have been developed and evaluated along with tau and amyloid imaging for assessing the disease progression in Alzheimer’s disease continuum. Given that translocator protein is not exclusively expressed in glia, alternative targets are under rapid development, such as monoamine oxidase B, matrix metalloproteinases, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, imidazoline-2 binding sites, cyclooxygenase, cannabinoid-2 receptor, purinergic P2X7 receptor, P2Y12 receptor, the fractalkine receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2, and receptor for advanced glycation end products. Promising targets should demonstrate a higher specificity for cellular locations with exclusive expression in microglia or astrocyte and activation status (pro- or anti-inflammatory) with highly specific ligand to enable in vivo brain imaging. In this review, we summarised recent advances in the development of neuroinflammation imaging tracers and provided an outlook for promising targets in the future.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012778
Laura Antolini ◽  
Jacopo C. DiFrancesco ◽  
Marialuisa Zedde ◽  
Gianpaolo Basso ◽  
Andrea Arighi ◽  

Background and Objectives:To investigate the natural history and outcomes following treatment for spontaneous amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-like in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri).Methods:A multicenter, hospital-based, longitudinal, prospective observational study of inpatients meeting CAA-ri diagnostic criteria, recruited through the iCAβ International Network, in the period January 2013 - March 2017. A protocol for systematic data collection at first-ever presentation and at subsequent in-person visits, including T1-weighted, GRE-T2*, fluid-suppressed T2-weighted (FLAIR), and T1 post-gadolinium contrast-enhancement images aquired on 1.5T MRI, was employed at 3, 6, 12, 24-months follow-up. Centralized reads of MRI images were performed blinded to clinical, therapeutic, and time-points information. Main outcomes were survival, clinical and radiological recovery, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and recurrence of CAA-ri.Results:The study enrolled 113 participants (10.6% definite, 71.7% probable, and 17.7% possible CAA-ri), mean age 72.9 years, 43.4% female, 37.1% APOEε4 carriers. 36.3% had a history of Alzheimer’s disease, 33.6% of ICH. A history of ICH, as well as the occurrence of new ICH at follow-up, was more common in patients with cortical superficial siderosis at baseline (52.6% vs 14.3%; p< 0.0001 and 19.3% vs 3.6%; p<0.009, respectively). After the first-ever presentation of CAA-ri, 70.3% (95% CI, 61.6-78.5) and 84.1% (95% CI, 76.2-90.6) clinically recovered within three and twelve months, followed by radiological recovery in 45.1% (95% CI, 36.4 - 54.8) and 77.4% (95% CI, 67.7 - 85.9), respectively. After clinicoradiological resolution of the first-ever episode, 38,3% (95% CI, 22.9 - 59.2) had at least one recurrence within the following 24 months. Recurrence was more likely if intravenous high dose corticosteroid pulse therapy was suddenly stopped compared to slow oral tapering-off (Hazard Ratio 4.68; 95% CI, 1.57-13.93; p=0.006).Discussion:These results from the largest longitudinal cohort registry of patients with CAA-ri support the transient and potentially relapsing inflammatory nature of the clinical-radiological acute manifestations of the disease and the effectiveness of slow oral tapering-off after intravenous corticosteroid pulse therapy in preventing recurrences. Our results highlight the importance of differential diagnosis for spontaneous ARIA-like events in Aβ-driven diseases, including treatment-related ARIA in Alzheimer’s disease patients exposed to immunotherapy drugs.

2021 ◽  
Jianfeng Wu ◽  
Yanxi Chen ◽  
Panwen Wang ◽  
Richard J Caselli ◽  
Paul M Thompson ◽  

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects more than 1 in 9 people age 65 and older and becomes an urgent public health concern as the global population ages. In clinical practice, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is the most accessible and widely used diagnostic imaging modality. Additionally, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and transcriptomic, the study of gene expression, also play an important role in understanding AD etiology and progression. Sophisticated imaging genetics systems have been developed to discover genetic factors that consistently affect brain function and structure. However, most studies to date focused on the relationships between brain sMRI and GWAS or brain sMRI and transcriptomics. To our knowledge, few methods have been developed to discover and infer multimodal relationships among sMRI, GWAS, and transcriptomics. To address this, we propose a novel federated model, Genotype-Expression-Imaging Data Integration (GEIDI), to identify genetic and transcriptomic influences on brain sMRI measures. The relationships between brain imaging measures and gene expression are allowed to depend on a person's genotype at the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, making the inferences adaptive and personalized. We performed extensive experiments on publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Experimental results demonstrated our proposed method outperformed state-of-the-art expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) methods for detecting genetic and transcriptomic factors related to AD and has stable performance when data are integrated from multiple sites. Our GEIDI approach may offer novel insights into the relationship among image biomarkers, genotypes, and gene expression and help discover novel genetic targets for potential AD drug treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jonas Ellegaard Nielsen ◽  
Bent Honoré ◽  
Karsten Vestergård ◽  
Raluca Georgiana Maltesen ◽  
Gunna Christiansen ◽  

AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and without readily available clinical biomarkers. Blood-derived proteins are routinely used for diagnostics; however, comprehensive plasma profiling is challenging due to the dynamic range in protein concentrations. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can cross the blood–brain barrier and may provide a source for AD biomarkers. We investigated plasma-derived EV proteins for AD biomarkers from 10 AD patients, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients, and 9 healthy controls (Con) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The ultracentrifuged EVs were washed and confirmed according to the MISEV2018 guidelines. Some AD patients presented with highly elevated FXIIIA1 (log2 FC: 4.6, p-value: 0.005) and FXIIIB (log2 FC: 4.9, p-value: 0.018). A panel of proteins was identified discriminating Con from AD (AUC: 0.91, CI: 0.67–1.00) with ORM2 (AUC: 1.00, CI: 1.00–1.00), RBP4 (AUC: 0.99, CI: 0.95–1.00), and HYDIN (AUC: 0.89, CI: 0.72–1.00) were found especially relevant for AD. This indicates that EVs provide an easily accessible matrix for possible AD biomarkers. Some of the MCI patients, with similar protein profiles as the AD group, progressed to AD within a 2-year timespan.

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