Type 2 Diabetes
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2021 ◽  
Vol 144 ◽  
pp. 112341
Stefano Rizza ◽  
Giacomo Piciucchi ◽  
Maria Mavilio ◽  
Susanna Longo ◽  
Martina Montagna ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (43) ◽  
Brendan M. Gabriel ◽  
Ali Altıntaş ◽  
Jonathon A. B. Smith ◽  
Laura Sardon-Puig ◽  
Xiping Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ruikai Jia ◽  
Min Huang ◽  
Lichun Qian ◽  
Xiaoye Yan ◽  
Qing Lv ◽  

Obesity, especially central obesity, is a strong risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism underlying the progression from central obesity to T2D remains unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the gut microbial profiles of central obese individuals with or without T2D from a Chinese population. Here we reported both the microbial compositional and gene functional alterations during the progression from central obesity to T2D. Several opportunistic pathogens were enriched in obese T2D patients. We also characterized thousands of genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism whose abundance were significantly depleted in obese T2D group. Moreover, the abundance of those genes was negatively associated with plasma glycemia level and percentage of individuals with impaired plasma glucose status. Therefore, our study indicates that the abundance of those depleted genes can be used as a potential biomarker to identify central obese individuals with high risks of developing T2D.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yingying Li ◽  
Hui Shen ◽  
Yike Li ◽  
Mei Bi ◽  
Yanhong Bi ◽  

Background: Some evidence indicates a potential beneficial effect of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the findings to date remains inconclusive and little is known about whether sex modifies these associations. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate potential sex-specific differences in this associations among Chinese adults.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in an area of Dalian city, China; Chinese men and women who attended the Department of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism between January and December 2020 were invited to participate in this study. All participants were assessed for basic demographic characteristics, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and other serum biomarkers and serum phospholipid FAs.Results: In total, 575 Chinese adult participants (270 men and 305 women) were included in the analysis. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were more common among men than women, but there were no significant differences between the sexes in fatty acid composition, except for eicosadienoic acid (EA; 20:2n-6) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The age-adjusted OR for having T2DM in the highest quartile of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) level was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.22, 0.98) in men, and this association remained consistently significant in the fully adjusted multivariate models. In contrast, no significant associations between n-6 PUFAs and T2DM risk were observed in women, regardless of model adjustment.Conclusions: In conclusion, these results demonstrate a notable sex-specific differences in the associations between n-6 PUFAs and T2DM. Higher n-6 PUFA status may be protective against the risk of T2DM in men.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Pallai Shillo ◽  
Yiangos Yiangou ◽  
Philippe Donatien ◽  
Marni Greig ◽  
Dinesh Selvarajah ◽  

Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be intractable with a major impact, yet the underlying pain mechanisms remain uncertain. A range of neuronal and vascular biomarkers was investigated in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (painful-DPN) and painless-DPN and used to differentiate painful-DPN from painless-DPN. Skin biopsies were collected from 61 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and 19 healthy volunteers (HV). All subjects underwent detailed clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Based on the neuropathy composite score of the lower limbs [NIS(LL)] plus seven tests, the T2D subjects were subsequently divided into three groups: painful-DPN (n = 23), painless-DPN (n = 19), and No-DPN (n = 19). All subjects underwent punch skin biopsy, and immunohistochemistry used to quantify total intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) with protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), regenerating nerve fibers with growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), peptidergic nerve fibers with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and blood vessels with von Willebrand Factor (vWF). The results showed that IENF density was severely decreased (p < 0.001) in both DPN groups, with no differences for PGP9.5, GAP43, CGRP, or GAP43/PGP9.5 ratios. There was a significant increase in blood vessel (vWF) density in painless-DPN and No-DPN groups compared to the HV group, but this was markedly greater in the painful-DPN group, and significantly higher than in the painless-DPN group (p < 0.0001). The ratio of sub-epidermal nerve fiber (SENF) density of CGRP:vWF showed a significant decrease in painful-DPN vs. painless-DPN (p = 0.014). In patients with T2D with advanced DPN, increased dermal vasculature and its ratio to nociceptors may differentiate painful-DPN from painless-DPN. We hypothesized that hypoxia-induced increase of blood vessels, which secrete algogenic substances including nerve growth factor (NGF), may expose their associated nociceptor fibers to a relative excess of algogens, thus leading to painful-DPN.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126-139
Brunda M ◽  
Spandana Peddareddy ◽  
Arushi Moha ◽  
Mahesh DM ◽  
Samriddha Thapa ◽  

Background: The pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent data showed that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most prevalent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, data indicate that hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are important risk factors for progression and unfavourable outcome in COVID-19 patients. Poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with severe progression of disease. Hence, large studies with comprehensive analysis of all risk factors and longer follow-up are necessary. Methods and analysis: A single-centre retrospective cross-sectional study of 300 patients that were SARS-CoV-2 positive from May to October 2020 was done. Data was entered into Microsoft excel data sheet and was analysed using SPSS 22 version software. Chi-square test or Fischer’s exact test (for 2x2 tables only) was used as test of significance for qualitative data. Independent t test was used as test of significance to identify the mean difference between two quantitative variables. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used as test of significance to identify the mean difference between more than two quantitative variables. P value (Probability that the result is true) of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant after assuming all the rules of statistical tests. Data collected was analyzed in a group of patients who were sub divided into 2 groups diabetics and Non diabetics. The parameters studied included laboratory markers: D dimer, CRP, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Ferritin levels. To assess the glycemic control HbA1C levels were assessed. The outcome parameters considered were Oxygen requirement, assessing the requirement of intensive care and duration of stay in the hospital Conclusion: The patients with higher HbA1c values were found to have higher CRP and D-dimer values and required ICU shift and prolonged hospital stay. Hence, good control of diabetes will reduce the worsening of disease. In a country like India, where most of the population do not have health insurance cover proper control of diabetes, can reduce the burden on family. Hence, large studies with comprehensive analysis of all risk factors and longer follow-up are necessary.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258914
Siranush Karapetyan ◽  
Antonius Schneider ◽  
Klaus Linde ◽  
Ewan Donnachie ◽  
Alexander Hapfelmeier

Background Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. Methods The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. Results A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. Conclusions The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tuğba Bülbül ◽  
Maryam Baharlooie ◽  
Zahra Safaeinejad ◽  
Ali Osmay Gure ◽  
Kamran Ghaedi

Abstract Background Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, especially among children. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects a large population globally, with metabolic disorders. There have been several genes that are identified as causes of Dyslexia, and in recent studies, it has been found out that some of those genes are also involved in several metabolic pathways. For several years, it has been known that type 2 diabetes causes several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, in several studies, it was suggested that type 2 diabetes also has some associations with learning disabilities. This raises the question of whether “Is there a connection between type 2 diabetes and dyslexia?”. In this study, this question is elaborated by linking their developmental processes via bioinformatics analysis about these two diseases individually and collectively. Result The literature review for dyslexia and type two diabetes was completed. As the result of this literature review, the genes that are associated to type 2 diabetes and dyslexia were identified. The biological pathways of dyslexia, and dyslexia associated genes, type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes associated genes were identified. The association of these genes, regarding to their association with pathways were analysed, and using STRING database the gene associations were analysed and identified. Conclusion The findings of this research included the interaction analysis via gene association, co-expression and protein–protein interaction. These findings clarified the interconnection between dyslexia and type 2 diabetes in molecular level and it will be the beginning of an answer regarding to the relationship between T2D and dyslexia. Finally, by improving the understanding this paper aims to open the way for the possible future approach to examine this hypothesis.

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