Morphological Changes
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Kemal Turgay Özbilen ◽  
Emre Altinkurt ◽  
Nihan Aksu Ceylan ◽  
Gizem Sayar Bilgin ◽  
Nilüfer Gözüm

Purpose. This study aimed to investigate whether femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) surgery causes inflammation in the anterior chamber and to analyze its effect on endothelial cells. Methods. This prospective, longitudinal study included left eyes of 30 patients (19 females) who had undergone FS-LASIK surgery due to myopia and myopic astigmatism. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and morphological measurements were performed using a specular microscopy, and laser flare photometry was used to measure the anterior chamber flare values on the day of surgery. iFS™ Advanced FS and VISX STAR S4-IR Wavescan Excimer Laser platforms were used. Flare measurements were repeated on the postoperative 1st day and 7th day and the 1st and 3rd months. The endothelial measurements were repeated in the 3rd month. Results. Preoperatively, the mean flare was 5.59 ± 1.24 photons/ms; it was 6.49 ± 2.42 on the postoperative 1st day, 5.87 ± 2.27 on the 7th day, 5.68 ± 1.66 on the 1st month, and 5.35 ± 1.24 on the 3rd month. A significant difference was observed only between the preoperative and postoperative 1st day flare values ( p = 0.047 ). The decrease in the ECD was clinically insignificant but statistically significant, with an average of 97.0 ± 209.9 cell count/mm2 (3.3%, p = 0.017 ). However, there was no significant change in the coefficient of variation ( p = 0.448 ) and hexagonality ( p = 0.096 ). No significant correlation was found between the increase in the flare value on the postoperative 1st day and variables. A significant correlation was found between the decrease in ECD and the preoperative ECD (r = 0.356, p = 0.027 ). Conclusion. FS-LASIK caused minimal inflammation in the anterior chamber on only the 1st postoperative day; additionally, a minimal decrease of cell count with no morphological changes were noted in the endothelial cells on postoperative 3rd month. This trial is registered with NCT04899258.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (5) ◽  
pp. 9-14
O.M. Ignatiev ◽  
M.I. Turchyn ◽  
V.A. Ulianov ◽  
T.A. Yermolenko

Bone tissue was studied in 56 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.30 ± 2.74 years), of which 46 patients who worked in unfavorable working conditions had a decreased bone mineral density (BMD) (osteoporosis (OP) — in 31 women, osteomalacia (OM) — in 13); 10 women had no metabolic changes in bone tissue (BT). A BT scan fragment was obtained during surgery for a fracture of the femoral neck. Non-decalcified QD sections were prepared, the functional activity of the QD cell nuclei was determined using the method of differential staining of nuclei with different functional activity. Morphological changes in OP and OM have both common features and differences. The common is the thinning of the bone rods, the expansion of the canals of osteons, the presence of cell-free areas, and cell-free lacunae. In contrast to OP, OM presents with the thickness and area of the osteoid increase, a less pronounced decrease in oxyphyllin matrix, a higher functional activity of BT cells. A decrease in BMD and the occurrence of low-energy fractures may result not only from OP but also OM. When prescribing treatment, it is necessary to carry out diffe-rential diagnostic measures that determine the cause of the decrease in bone mass.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Florian Siegerist ◽  
Tim Lange ◽  
Anna Iervolino ◽  
Thor Magnus Koppe ◽  
Weibin Zhou ◽  

AbstractThe majority of kidney diseases arise from the loss of podocytes and from morphological changes of their highly complex foot process architecture, which inevitably leads to a reduced kidney filtration and total loss of kidney function. It could have been shown that microRNAs (miRs) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of podocyte-associated kidney diseases. Due to their fully functioning pronephric kidney, larval zebrafish have become a popular vertebrate model, to study kidney diseases in vivo. Unfortunately, there is no consensus about a proper normalization strategy of RT-qPCR-based miRNA expression data in zebrafish. In this study we analyzed 9 preselected candidates dre-miR-92a-3p, dre-miR-206-3p, dre-miR-99-1, dre-miR-92b-3p, dre-miR-363-3p, dre-let-7e, dre-miR-454a, dre-miR-30c-5p, dre-miR-126a-5p for their capability as endogenous reference genes in zebrafish experiments. Expression levels of potential candidates were measured in 3 different zebrafish strains, different developmental stages, and in different kidney disease models by RT-qPCR. Expression values were analyzed with NormFinder, BestKeeper, GeNorm, and DeltaCt and were tested for inter-group differences. All candidates show an abundant expression throughout all samples and relatively high stability. The most stable candidate without significant inter-group differences was dre-miR-92b-3p making it a suitable endogenous reference gene for RT-qPCR-based miR expression zebrafish studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (s1) ◽  
Carolina Pellegrini ◽  
Vanessa D'Antongiovanni ◽  
Chiara Ippolito ◽  
Cristina Segnani ◽  
Luca Antonioli ◽  

Gastrointestinal dysfunctions represent the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Of note, changes in gut microbiota, impairments of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), bowel inflammation and neuroplastic rearrangements of the enteric nervous system (ENS) could be involved in the pathophysiology of the intestinal disturbances in PD. In this context, although several review articles have pooled together evidence on the alterations of enteric bacteria-neuro-immune network in PD, a revision of the literature on the specific morphological changes occurring in the intestinal mucosal barrier, the ENS and enteric muscular layers in PD, is lacking. The present review provides a complete appraisal of the available knowledge on the morphological alterations of intestinal mucosal barrier, with particular focus on IEB, ENS and enteric muscular layers in PD. In particular, our intent was to critically discuss whether, based on evidence from translational studies and pre-clinical models, morphological changes in the intestinal barrier and enteric neuromuscular compartment contribute to the pathophysiology of intestinal dysfunctions occurring in PD.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1216
Chiu-Min Cheng ◽  
Yu-Rong Cheng ◽  
De-Sing Ding ◽  
Ya-Ting Chen ◽  
Wei-Ting Sun ◽  

Ciliate infection is a serious parasitic disease of coral. Infected coral rots and dies in a short time. In addition to killing corals by infecting them in the oceans, ciliate infection also poses a threat to corals farmed on a large scale. In this study, two antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) were used to judge the stress response in Goniopora columna after infection, and KCl and H2O2 were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. The results showed that SOD and CAT increased during the early stage of infection but decreased with the extension of infection time. In terms of drug therapy, it was found that the treatment of ciliate infection with 1.5% of KCl had no significant effect on SOD and CAT of G. columna. The morphological changes of zooxanthellae, chlorophyll a, and coral were not significant. H2O2 leads to a stress response and polyp contraction. In conclusion, 1.5% of KCl can be used in the selection of drugs to treat ciliate infection.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 647
Vittoria Roncalli ◽  
Chiara Lauritano ◽  
Ylenia Carotenuto

Ovothiol is one of the most powerful antioxidants acting in marine organisms as a defense against oxidative stress during development and in response to environmental cues. The gene involved in the ovothiol biosynthesis, OvoA, is found in almost all metazoans, but open questions existed on its presence among arthropods. Here, using an in silico workflow, we report a single OvoA gene in marine arthropods including copepods, decapods, and amphipods. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA from marine arthropods separated from the other marine phyla (e.g., Porifera, Mollusca) and divided into two separate branches, suggesting a possible divergence through evolution. In the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, we suggest that OvoA has a defense role in oxidative stress as shown by its high expression in response to a toxic diet and during the copepodite stage, a developmental stage that includes significant morphological changes. Overall, the results of our study open possibilities for the use of OvoA as a biomarker of stress in copepods and possibly also for other marine holozooplankters. The finding of OvoA in copepods is also promising for the drug discovery field, suggesting the possibility of using copepods as a new source of bioactive compounds to be tested in the marine biotechnological sector.

L. N. Rogava ◽  
N. V. Shesternina ◽  
V. N. Povetkina ◽  
V. A. Staravoytov ◽  
I. A. Fastova ◽  

Objective: to determine the specifi c number and expression intensity of gelatinase B-positive cells in the gastric surface epithelium and lamina propria (cell component) in the area of the ulcerous defect in rats with experimental acetate ulcer of the stomach.Materials and methods: 18 white Wistar rats were divided into three groups: initial (intact), experimental (modeling of an acetate ulcer) and control (falsely operated) in the experiment. Tissues were obtained from the ulceration zone or the presumed ulceration zone (in the initial and control groups) to asses morphological changes and also indicators, characterizing the activity of gelatinase B 7 days after the simulation of the experiment.Results and Discussion. It was revealed some increase in the specifi c number of gelatinase B-positive cells against the background of moderate accumulation of lymphocytes in the integument epithelium of the gastric mucosa. A signifi cant increase in the specifi c number of gelatinase B-positive cells at the maximum intensity of its expression and a moderate accumulation of eff ector cells of tissue alterations was determined in the cellular component of the lamina propria of the gastric mucosa at the same time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 72
Yuanlong Pan

Due to a difference in genetics, environmental factors, and nutrition, just like in people, dogs age at different rates. Brain aging in people and dogs share similar morphological changes including irreversible cortical atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and ventricular enlargement. Due to severe and irreversible brain atrophy, some aging dogs develop cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS), which is equivalent to dementia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in people. The risk factors and causes of CDS in dogs have not been fully investigated, but age, gender, oxidative stress, and deficiency of sex hormones appears to be associated with increased risk of accelerated brain aging and CDS in dogs. Both AD and CDS are incurable diseases at this moment, therefore more efforts should be focused on preventing or reducing brain atrophy and minimizing the risk of AD in people and CDS in dogs. Since brain atrophy leads to irreversible cognitive decline and dementia, an optimal nutritional solution should be able to not only enhance cognitive function during aging but also reduce irreversible brain atrophy. Up to now, only one nutritional intervention has demonstrated both cognition-enhancing benefits and atrophy-reducing benefits.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 3219
Magdalena Rudzinska-Radecka ◽  
Łukasz Janczewski ◽  
Anna Gajda ◽  
Marlena Godlewska ◽  
Malgorzata Chmielewska-Krzesinska ◽  

Isothiocyanates (ITCs) show strong activity against numerous human tumors. Five structurally diverse ITCs were tested in vivo using the zebrafish embryos 6 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf). The survival rate, hatching time, and gross morphological changes were assessed 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment with all compounds in various doses (1–10 µM). As a result, we selected a phosphonate analog of sulforaphane (P-ITC; 1–3 µM) as a non-toxic treatment for zebrafish embryos, both 6 and 48 hpf. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-cancerogenic studies with selected 3 µM P-ITC were performed using a set of cell lines derived from the brain (U87), cervical (HeLa), and breast (MDA-MB-231) tumors. For the experiment, cells were labeled using red fluorescence dye Dil (1,1′-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-Tetramethylindocarbocyanine, 10 μg/mL) and injected into the hindbrain ventricle, yolk sac region and Cuvier duct of zebrafish embryos. The tumor size measurement after 48 h of treatment demonstrated the significant inhibition of cancer cell growth in all tested cases by P-ITC compared to the non-treated controls. Our studies provided evidence for P-ITC anti-cancerogenic properties with versatile activity against different cancer types. Additionally, P-ITC demonstrated the safety of use in the living organism at various stages of embryogenesis.

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