morphological changes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 573-584
Author(s):  
Fábio da Costa Málaga ◽  
◽  
Helloa Alaide Siqueira ◽  
Lucio Pereira Rauber ◽  
Mariana Groke Marques ◽  
...  

In pig farming, measurements of production parameters play a fundamental role in the success of the activity. Minimal differences in fertility between breeders can lead to less reproductive efficiency and, less productivity. However, assessing the fertility of each male and the early identification of subfertile males is a difficult task to be performed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in vitro and in vivo parameters in the identification of subfertile males of the Landrace breed, aiming to collaborate with genetic improvement programs, routine optimization in the Genetic Diffusion Units (GDUs) and the results of performance. In experiment 1, an approach to identify males with subfertility was evaluated based on retrospective data. For this, the results (averages of birth rates, number of total births and average percentages of female and male piglets per litter) were evaluated for a total of 996 matings and 847 parturitions. The inseminations came from ejaculates of 32 males, who had at least 19 females inseminated with homospermic doses in the concentration of 2.5 x 109 total sperm from the same male. As for the birth rate (BR), an average of 85.47% ± 6.05 was observed with a group of median males, seven males that stood out and one individual (M32) with a performance of 58.06% ± 9.0. For the total number of piglets born (PB) the average was 13.41 ± 0.56, with three males with better performance and one (M32) with very poor performance (8.62 ± 0.59). In experiment 2, it was verified whether evaluations of inseminating doses (ID) of semen in vitro (motility and sperm morphology) after 96 hours of storage had correlations with fertility in vivo, which can be used to identify subfertile males. The evaluations were performed on 30 ejaculates regarding the means of BR and PB, considering only those who had at least 7 females inseminated. There were no correlations between the motility assessments and semen morphological changes and the reproductive parameters evaluated. The results obtained in vivo, referring to BR and PB, demonstrated that it was possible to identify differences between males, the individual (M32) had the worst results for the percentages of BR and PB. It is concluded that there are males of high and low fertility and that only the in vitro analyzes carried out in this study are not enough to categorize them, however, the evaluation of retrospective data was efficient for this purpose.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
Z. Almalki ◽  
M. Algregri ◽  
M. Alhosin ◽  
M. Alkhaled ◽  
S. Damiati ◽  
...  

Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumour of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC). The recent therapeutic approaches used to treat cancer have adverse side effects. The natural agents exhibiting anticancer activities are generally considered to have a robust therapeutic potential. Curcuminoids, one of the major active compounds of the turmeric herb, are used as a therapeutic agent for several diseases including cancer. In this study, the cytotoxicity of curcuminoids was investigated against OSCC cell line HNO97. Our data showed that curcuminoids significantly inhibits the proliferation of HNO97 in a time and dose-dependent manner (IC50=35 μM). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcuminoids increased the percentage of G2/M phase cell populations in the treated groups. Treating HNO97 cells with curcuminoids led to cell shrinking and increased detached cells, which are the typical appearance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis revealed that curcuminoids significantly induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, as a response to curcuminoids treatment, comet tails were formed in cell nuclei due to the induction of DNA damage. Curcuminoids treatment reduced the colony formation capacity of HNO97 cells and induced morphological changes. Overall, these findings demonstrate that curcuminoids can in vitro inhibit HNC proliferation and metastasis and induce apoptosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 724-730
Author(s):  
Xue Zhong ◽  
Yuebo Jin ◽  
Yufei Feng

Aim: To discuss Muscone treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis Rat Models and relative mechanisms. Materials and methods: Dividing 36 rats as 4 groups as Normal, Model, DMSO and Muscone groups (n = 9). Rats of Model, DMSO and Muscone groups were made Rheumatoid Arthritis model. Muscone group were treated with 2 mg/kg Muscone after modeling. HE staining and Masson staining were used to observe the morphological changes of cartilage tissue, measuring MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression by RT-PCR, Western Blotting (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Compared with Model group, the pathological changes of Muscone group was significantly improved and average optical density of collagen fibers was significantly depressed (P < 0.001, respectively) via MMP-3 and MMP-9 proteins significantly depressing (P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Muscone improved Rheumatoid Arthritis by depressing MMP-3 and MMP-9 proteins in vivo study.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 471-479
Author(s):  
Aqsa Khan ◽  
Ghazna Hassan Khan ◽  
Eraj Humayun Mirza ◽  
Alidad Chandio ◽  
Maliha Mohsin ◽  
...  

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a multidisciplinary field in recent times with an aim to expedite the process of regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. This study is an attempt to fabricate and characterize Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Chitosan incorporated Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based bone cement. In total two experimental PMMA based bone cements were fabricated that were differentiated by presence and absence of Chitosan. In both groups (10 and 30 wt.%) TCP were incorporated into Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer. PMMA was used as a control. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were assessed. Morphological changes of PMMA after the introduction of TCP and Chitosan were observed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major peak shifts in Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated the strong bonding of PMMA with incorporated materials. PMMA incorporated with 10% TCP showed the maximum wettability in absence of Chitosan. Hardness of the tested specimens decreased with increasing content of TCP which in turns enhanced ductility. It was also observed that neither of the samples showed significant degradation. The incorporation of additives enhance the physical and chemical properties of PMMA as bone cement.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiwen Qi ◽  
Yue-meng Zhu ◽  
Bin Li

Abstract IntroductionCyclophosphamide (CTX), is reported to be extensively used to establish POI animal model. But the most effective dose has not been systematically concluded yet. This systematic review and network meta-analysis is aimed to compare and rank the different doses of cyclophosphamide in the CTX-induced POI rat model.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of CTX-induced rat POI model were searched in four databases from inception to December, 2021. A network meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data of included publications. The quality assessment was assessed by SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Data were analyzed with STATA 15.0 and Review Manager 5.3.Result205 records were searched and a total of 14 articles met inclusion criteria, Compared by Ovarian morphological changes, estrous cycle and hormone level (FSH, E2, AMH), the loading dose of 200mg/kg CTX with the maintenance dose of 8mg/kg CTX for consecutive 14 days showed the best efficacy in inducing rat POI model.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125-137
Author(s):  
Roman Yanko ◽  
Elena Chaka ◽  
Mikhail Levashov

Background: Literature data on the effect of methionine on functional activity and, especially, on morphological changes in the liver parenchyma in animals of different ages are sporadic, and research results are often ambiguous. Aim: The purpose of this work was to study and compare the morphofunctional changes in the liver of rats of different ages on prolonged administration of L-methionine. Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on 48 male Wistar rats of 3 and 15 months of age. Animals of the experimental group received L-methionine at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight in addition to the standard diet, daily for 21 days. Histological preparations were prepared from liver tissue by a standard technique. Morphometry was performed on digital images using the computer program «Image J». Succinate dehydrogenase activity and protein concentration were determined in the suspension of hepatocyte mitochondria. Results: It was revealed that 21-day administration of L-methionine to rats led to hypertrophy of the hepatocyte nucleus, an increase in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the number of binuclear hepatocytes, and the nucleolus in the cell nucleus. The relative area of ​​the sinusoids network increased by 50% in 3-month-old animals. This indicated a better blood filling of the liver parenchyma. The increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity and protein concentration was revealed in the suspension of hepatocyte mitochondria of the experimental rats. This indicated an increase in the mitochondria energy potential and protein-synthetic activity. Conclusions: The administration of prophylactic doses of methionine to healthy rats leads to the appearance of pronounced morphological and functional signs of increased activity of hepatocytes. The severity of this effect has a distinct age-dependent character. In young rats, it is more pronounced than in mature rats. The results of the study are important for practical medicine when using methionine for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-30
Author(s):  
N.J. Ermatov ◽  
T.A. Bobomuratov ◽  
M.A. Sagdullaeva

The article is devoted to the current problems of obstetrics, perinatology and neonatology. The article presents a literary review and covers scientific views on the factors of births and hazardous factors that lead to transfer and prolonged pregnancy. The most common perinatal complications of a delayed pregnancy are stillbirth, asphyxia, and birth trauma. Neonatal morbidity in premature infants is 29% and perinatal mortality is 19%, which is higher than in preterm infants. If the pregnancy is 43 weeks or more, these rates will increase. All of these diseases are associated with a decrease in the fetal resistance to hypoxia due to the large size of the brain and morphological changes in the placenta. Therefore, the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome and fetal distress syndrome at birth increases, leading to high perinatal morbidity and mortality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Atefe Ghafurian Nasab ◽  
Sayed Ali Mortazavi ◽  
Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi ◽  
Mahboobe Sarabi Jamab

In the present research, the production potential of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Lactobacillus brevis PML1 was investigated. In addition, the microorganism viability was examined in MAN, ROGOSA, and SHARPE (MRS) after undergoing high hydrostatic pressure at 100, 200, and 300 MPa for 5, 10, and 15 min. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the production conditions of GABA as well as the bacteria viability. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that both the independent variables (pressure and time) significantly influenced the dependent ones (GABA and bacteria viability) ( P < 0.05 ). The optimum extraction conditions to maximize the production of GABA included the pressure of 300 MPa and the time of 15 min. The amount of the compound was quantified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometry. For the process optimization, a central composite design (CCD) was created using Design Expert with 5 replications at the center point, whereby the highest content of GABA was obtained to be 397.73 ppm which was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphological changes in the microorganism. The results revealed that not only did have Lactobacillus brevis PML1 the potential for the production of GABA under conventional conditions (control sample) but also the content of this bioactive compound could be elevated by optimizing the production parameters.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Terry Van Raay ◽  
Victoria Rea ◽  
Ian Bell

Abstract Background : Small molecule metabolites produced by the microbiome are known to be neuroactive and are capable of directly impacting the brain and central nervous system, yet there is little data on the contribution of these metabolites to the earliest stages of neural development and neural gene expression. Here, we explore the impact of deriving zebrafish embryos in the absence of microbes on early neural development as well as investigate whether any potential changes can be rescued with treatment of metabolites derived from the zebrafish gut microbiota. Results : Overall, we did not observe any gross morphological changes between treatments but did observe a significant decrease in neural gene expression in embryos raised germ-free, which was rescued with the addition of zebrafish metabolites. Specifically, we identified 354 genes significantly down regulated in germ-free embryos compared to conventionally raised embryos via RNA-Seq analysis. Of these, 42 were rescued with a single treatment of zebrafish gut-derived metabolites to germ-free embryos. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these genes are involved in prominent neurodevelopmental pathways including transcriptional regulation and Wnt signalling. Consistent with the ontology analysis, we found alterations in the development of Wnt dependent events which was rescued in the germ-free embryos treated with metabolites. Conclusions : These findings demonstrate that gut-derived metabolites are in part responsible for regulating critical signalling pathways in the brain, especially during neural development.


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