Commentary for an article on an assay system for superoxide dismutase using autooxidation of hydroxylamine

Naoyuki Taniguchi ◽  
Kento Maeda ◽  
Masato Kitano
1994 ◽  
Vol 90 (2) ◽  
pp. 339-347 ◽  
Maria S. Almansa ◽  
Luis A. del Rio ◽  
Francisca Sevilla

1993 ◽  
Vol 70 (03) ◽  
pp. 448-453 ◽  
Ole Nordfang ◽  
Hanne I Kristensen ◽  
Sanne Valentin ◽  
Per Østergaard ◽  
Johnny Wadt

SummaryThe anticoagulant activities of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI), heparin and hirudin were compared in intrinsic (APTT) and extrinsic (PT) activated clotting assays. In contrast to the thrombin inhibitor hirudin, heparin was 10 fold more potent in the APTT assay than in the PT assay, indicating that inhibition of intrinsic activation is important for the anticoagulant activity of heparin as measured in an APTT assay. TFPI was most potent in the PT assay and the effect of TFPI was most pronounced in the presence of other anticoagulants (heparin and hirudin). The activities of the two natural anticoagulants antithrombin III (ATIII) and TFPI were compared in a PT assay with very dilute tissue factor. In this assay system TFPI in normal plasma affected the clotting time more than ATIII in the plasma. However, when heparin was added ATIII was the major anticoagulant, but profound Prolongation of the clotting time was only seen when TFPI was also added. In an ATIII deficient plasma heparin did not augment the effect of TFPI, showing that the increased effect of TFPI in the presence of heparin is dependent on the anticoagulant activity of ATIII/heparin. The effect of TFPI at prolonged clotting times was also illustrated by the significant effect of blocking TFPI in the plasma from warfarin-treated patients. Thus TFPI is a major anticoagulant in normal plasma and the effect of TFPI is especially seen at prolonged clotting times.

1977 ◽  
Vol 37 (01) ◽  
pp. 154-161 ◽  
B. A Janik ◽  
S. E Papaioannou

SummaryUrokinase, streptokinase, Brinase, trypsin, and SN 687, a bacterial exoprotease, have been evaluated in an ex vivo assay system. These enzymes were injected into rabbits and the fibrinolytic activity as well as other coagulation parameters were measured by in vitro techniques. Dose-response correlations have been made using the euglobulin lysis time as a measure of fibrinolytic activity and the 50% effective dose has been determined for each enzyme. Loading doses, equal to four times the 50% effective dose, were administered to monitor potential toxicity revealing that Brinase, trypsin, and SN 687 were very toxic at this concentration.Having established the 50% effective dose for each enzyme, further testing was conducted where relevant fibrinolytic and coagulation parameters were measured for up to two days following a 50% effective dose bolus injection of each enzyme. Our results have demonstrated that urokinase and streptokinase are plasminogen activators specifically activating the rabbit fibrinolytic system while Brinase, trypsin and SN 687 increase the general proteolytic activity in vivo.The advantages of this ex vivo assay system for evaluating relative fibrinolytic potencies and side effects for plasminogen activators and fibrinolytic proteases have been discussed.

1981 ◽  
Vol 45 (03) ◽  
pp. 290-293 ◽  
Peter H Levine ◽  
Danielle G Sladdin ◽  
Norman I Krinsky

SummaryIn the course of studying the effects on platelets of the oxidant species superoxide (O- 2), Of was generated by the interaction of xanthine oxidase plus xanthine. Surprisingly, gel-filtered platelets, when exposed to xanthine oxidase in the absence of xanthine substrate, were found to generate superoxide (O- 2), as determined by the reduction of added cytochrome c and by the inhibition of this reduction in the presence of superoxide dismutase.In addition to generating Of, the xanthine oxidase-treated platelets display both aggregation and evidence of the release reaction. This xanthine oxidase induced aggreagtion is not inhibited by the addition of either superoxide dismutase or cytochrome c, suggesting that it is due to either a further metabolite of O- 2, or that O- 2 itself exerts no important direct effect on platelet function under these experimental conditions. The ability of Of to modulate platelet reactions in vivo or in vitro remains in doubt, and xanthine oxidase is an unsuitable source of O- 2 in platelet studies because of its own effects on platelets.

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