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2022 ◽  
Vol 521 ◽  
pp. 230972
Mohammad Zhiani ◽  
Saeid Barzi ◽  
Ali Ahmadi ◽  
Francesco Vizza ◽  
Hussein Gharibi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Anil Vishnu G. K. ◽  
Gayatri Gogoi ◽  
Bhagaban Behera ◽  
Saeed Rila ◽  
Annapoorni Rangarajan ◽  

AbstractThe rapid and label-free diagnosis of malignancies in ex vivo breast biopsy tissues has significant utility in pathology laboratories and operating rooms. We report a MEMS-based platform integrated with microchips that performs phenotyping of breast biopsy tissues using electrothermal sensing. The microchip, fabricated on a silicon substrate, incorporates a platinum microheater, interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) as on-chip sensing elements. The microchips are integrated onto the platform using a slide-fit contact enabling quick replacement for biological measurements. The bulk resistivity (ρB), surface resistivity (ρS), and thermal conductivity (k) of deparaffinized and formalin-fixed paired tumor and adjacent normal breast biopsy samples from N = 8 patients were measured. For formalin-fixed samples, the mean ρB for tumors showed a statistically significant fold change of 4.42 (P = 0.014) when the tissue was heated from 25 °C to 37 °C compared to the adjacent normal tissue, which showed a fold change of 3.47. The mean ρS measurements also showed a similar trend. The mean k of the formalin-fixed tumor tissues was 0.309 ± 0.02 W m−1 K−1 compared to a significantly higher k of 0.563 ± 0.028 W m−1 K−1 for the adjacent normal tissues. A similar trend was observed in ρB,ρS, and k for the deparaffinized tissue samples. An analysis of a combination of ρB, ρS, and k using Fisher’s combined probability test and linear regression suggests the advantage of using all three parameters simultaneously for distinguishing tumors from adjacent normal tissues with higher statistical significance.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Elisabetta Marini ◽  
Marta Giorgis ◽  
Marta Leporati ◽  
Barbara Rolando ◽  
Konstantin Chegaev ◽  

Chronic use of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is limited by serious side effects, such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction of coronary and resistance arteries. Although GTN is used as a drug since more than 130 years, the mechanisms of the vasodilatory effects and of tolerance development to organic nitrates are still incompletely elucidated. New synthesized organic nitrates with and without antioxidant properties were characterized for their ex vivo tolerance profile, in order to investigate the oxidative stress hypothesis of nitrate tolerance. The organic nitrates studied showed different vasodilation and tolerance profiles, probably due to the ability or inability of the compounds to interact with the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme (ALDH-2) involved in bioactivation. Furthermore, nitrooxy derivatives endowed with antioxidant properties did not determine the onset of tolerance, even if bioactivated by ALDH-2. The results of this study could be further evidence of the involvement of ALDH-2 in the development of nitrate tolerance. Moreover, the behavior of organic nitrates with antioxidant properties supports the hypothesis of the involvement of ROS in inactivating ALDH-2.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Swartjes ◽  
Peng Shang ◽  
Dennis van den Berg ◽  
Tim A. Kunne ◽  
Niels Geijsen ◽  

CRISPR-Cas has revolutionized genome editing and has a great potential for applications, such as correcting human genetic disorders. To increase the safety of genome editing applications, CRISPR-Cas may benefit from strict control over Cas enzyme activity. Previously, anti-CRISPR proteins and designed oligonucleotides have been proposed to modulate CRISPR-Cas activity. Here we report on the potential of guide-complementary DNA oligonucleotides as controlled inhibitors of Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes. First, we show that DNA oligonucleotides down-regulate Cas9 activity in human cells, reducing both on and off-target cleavage. We then used in vitro assays to better understand how inhibition is achieved and under which conditions. Two factors were found to be important for robust inhibition: the length of the complementary region, and the presence of a PAM-loop on the inhibitor. We conclude that DNA oligonucleotides can be used to effectively inhibit Cas9 activity both ex vivo and in vitro.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Agnieszka Latka ◽  
Leen Van Simaey ◽  
Marijke Reynders ◽  
Piet Cools ◽  
Tess Rogier ◽  

Quantification of the number of living cells in biofilm or after eradication treatments of biofilm, is problematic for different reasons. We assessed the performance of pre-treatment of DNA, planktonic cells and ex vivo vaginal biofilms of Gardnerella with propidium monoazide (PMAxx) to prevent qPCR-based amplification of DNA from killed cells (viability-qPCR). Standard PMAxx treatment did not completely inactivate free DNA and did not affect living cells. While culture indicated that killing of planktonic cells by heat or by endolysin was complete, viability-qPCR assessed only log reductions of 1.73 and 0.32, respectively. Therefore, we improved the standard protocol by comparing different (combinations of) parameters, such as concentration of PMAxx, and repetition, duration and incubation conditions of treatment. The optimized PMAxx treatment condition for further experiments consisted of three cycles, each of: 15 min incubation on ice with 50 µM PMAxx, followed by 15 min-long light exposure. This protocol was validated for use in vaginal samples from women with bacterial vaginosis. Up to log2.2 reduction of Gardnerella cells after treatment with PM-477 was documented, despite the complex composition of the samples, which might have hampered the activity of PM-477 as well as the quantification of low loads by viability-qPCR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
James A. Garnett ◽  
Joseph Atherton

Historically proteins that form highly polymeric and filamentous assemblies have been notoriously difficult to study using high resolution structural techniques. This has been due to several factors that include structural heterogeneity, their large molecular mass, and available yields. However, over the past decade we are now seeing a major shift towards atomic resolution insight and the study of more complex heterogenous samples and in situ/ex vivo examination of multi-subunit complexes. Although supported by developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR) and computational approaches, this has primarily been due to advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The study of eukaryotic microtubules and bacterial pili are good examples, and in this review, we will give an overview of the technical innovations that have enabled this transition and highlight the advancements that have been made for these two systems. Looking to the future we will also describe systems that remain difficult to study and where further technical breakthroughs are required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Reza Hosseini ◽  
Hamzeh Sarvnaz ◽  
Maedeh Arabpour ◽  
Samira Molaei Ramshe ◽  
Leila Asef-Kabiri ◽  

AbstractTumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Based on this rationale, adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded NK cells/NK cell lines, such as NK-92 cells, has attracted great attention and is widely studied as a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment. However, by exploiting various strategies, including secretion of exosomes, cancer cells are able to subvert NK cell responses. This paper reviews the roles of TDEs in cancer-induced NK cells impairments with mechanistic insights. The clinical significance and potential approaches to nullify the effects of TDEs on NK cells in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 904
Emma Verheye ◽  
Jesús Bravo Melgar ◽  
Sofie Deschoemaeker ◽  
Geert Raes ◽  
Anke Maes ◽  

Immunotherapeutic approaches, including adoptive cell therapy, revolutionized treatment in multiple myeloma (MM). As dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and key initiators of tumor-specific immune responses, DC-based immunotherapy represents an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. The past years, various DC-based approaches, using particularly ex-vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs, have been tested in preclinical and clinical MM studies. However, long-term and durable responses in MM patients were limited, potentially attributed to the source of monocyte-derived DCs and the immunosuppressive bone marrow microenvironment. In this review, we briefly summarize the DC development in the bone marrow niche and the phenotypical and functional characteristics of the major DC subsets. We address the known DC deficiencies in MM and give an overview of the DC-based vaccination protocols that were tested in MM patients. Lastly, we also provide strategies to improve the efficacy of DC vaccines using new, improved DC-based approaches and combination therapies for MM patients.

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