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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fei-lin Ge ◽  
Lan-lan Si ◽  
Yan Yang ◽  
Yuan-hua Li ◽  
Zhong-lin Lv ◽  

Liuweiwuling Tablet (LWWL) is a licensed Chinese patent medicine (approval number: Z20060238) included in the national health insurance for anti-inflammation of chronic HBV infection, whereas its anti-HBV effect remains clarification. The study aimed to clarify its antiviral effect and related mechanisms. HepG2.2.15 cells (wild-type HBV-replicating cells) and HepG2. A64 cells (entecavir-resistant HBV-replicating cells) were used for in vitro test. Hydrodynamic injection-mediated HBV-replicating mouse model was used for in vivo test. Active compounds and related mechanisms for antiviral effect of LWWL were analyzed using network pharmacology and transcriptomics. The inhibition rates of LWWL (0.8 mg/ml) on HBV DNA, HBsAg, and pgRNA were 57.06, 38.55, and 62.49% in HepG2.2.15 cells, and 51.57, 17.57, and 53.88% in HepG2. A64 cells, respectively. LWWL (2 g kg−1 d−1 for 4 weeks)-treated mice had 1.16 log10 IU/mL decrease of serum HBV DNA, and more than 50% decrease of serum HBsAg/HBeAg and hepatic HBsAg/HBcAg. Compared to tenofovir control, LWWL was less effective in suppressing HBV DNA but more effective in suppressing HBV antigens. Thirteen differentially-expressed genes were found in relation to HBV-host interaction and some of them were enriched in interferon (IFN)-β pathway in LWWL-treated HepG2.2.15 cells. CD3+CD4+ T-cell frequency and serum IFN-γ were significantly increased in LWWL-treated mice compared to LWWL-untreated mice. Among 26 compounds with potential anti-HBV effects that were predicted by network pharmacology, four compounds (quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, and kaempferol) were experimentally confirmed to have antiviral potency. In conclusion, LWWL had potent inhibitory effect on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant HBV, which might be associated with increasing IFN-β and IFN-γ production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Suguru Saito ◽  
Duo-Yao Cao ◽  
Aaron R. Victor ◽  
Zhenzi Peng ◽  
Hui-Ya Wu ◽  

As first responder cells in host defense, neutrophils must be carefully regulated to prevent collateral tissue injury. However, the intracellular events that titrate the neutrophil’s response to inflammatory stimuli remain poorly understood. As a molecular switch, Ras activity is tightly regulated by Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAP) to maintain cellular active-inactive states. Here, we show that RASAL3, a RasGAP, is highly expressed in neutrophils and that its expression is upregulated by exogenous stimuli in neutrophils. RASAL3 deficiency triggers augmented neutrophil responses and enhanced immune activation in acute inflammatory conditions. Consequently, mice lacking RASAL3 (RASAL3-KO) demonstrate accelerated mortality in a septic shock model via induction of severe organ damage and hyperinflammatory response. The excessive neutrophilic hyperinflammation and increased mortality were recapitulated in a mouse model of sickle cell disease, which we found to have low neutrophil RASAL3 expression upon LPS activation. Thus, RASAL3 functions as a RasGAP that negatively regulates the cellular activity of neutrophils to modulate the inflammatory response. These results demonstrate that RASAL3 could serve as a therapeutic target to regulate excessive inflammation in sepsis and many inflammatory disease states.

Hongyu Li ◽  
Xin Shen ◽  
Mengjun Ma ◽  
Wenzhou Liu ◽  
Wen Yang ◽  

Abstract Background The zinc transporters Zrt- and Irt-related protein (ZIP/SLC39) are overexpressed in human tumors and correlate with poor prognosis; however, their contributions to carcinogenesis and chemoresistance in osteosarcoma (OS) remain unclear. Methods We collected 64 OS patient tissues with (n = 12) or without (n = 52) chemotherapy. The expression levels of ZIP10 were measured by immunohistochemistry and applied to prognostic analysis. ZIP10 was knocked down or overexpressed in OS cell lines to explore its effect on proliferation and chemoresistance. RNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis were performed to explore ZIP10-regulated downstream target genes. A xenograft mouse model was established to evaluate the mechanisms by which ZIP10 modulates chemoresistance in OS cells. Results The expression of ZIP10 was significantly induced by chemotherapy and highly associated with the clinical outcomes of OS. Knockdown of ZIP10 suppressed OS cell proliferation and chemoresistance. In addition, ZIP10 promoted Zn content-induced cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and activation, which are required for integrin α10 (ITGA10) transcription and ITGA10-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Importantly, ITGA10 stimulated PI3K/AKT signaling but not the classical FAK or SRC pathway. Moreover, overexpression of ZIP10 promoted ITGA10 expression and conferred chemoresistance. Treatment with the CREB inhibitor 666–15 or the PI3K/AKT inhibitor GSK690693 impaired tumor chemoresistance in ZIP10-overexpressing cells. Finally, a xenograft mouse model established by subcutaneous injection of 143B cells confirmed that ZIP10 mediates chemotherapy resistance in OS cells via the ZIP10-ITGA10-PI3K/AKT axis. Conclusions We demonstrate that ZIP10 drives OS proliferation and chemoresistance through ITGA10-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which might serve as a target for OS treatment.

2021 ◽  
Carrie R. Jonak ◽  
Ernest V. Pedapati ◽  
Lauren M. Schmitt ◽  
Samantha A. Assad ◽  
Manbir S. Sandhu ◽  

Abstract Background: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of neurodevelopmental disability. It is often characterized, especially in males, by intellectual disability, anxiety, repetitive behavior, social communication deficits, delayed language development and abnormal sensory processing. Recently, we identified electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers that are conserved between the mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO mice) and humans with FXS. Methods: In this report, we evaluate small molecule target engagement utilizing multielectrode array electrophysiology in the Fmr1 KO mouse and in humans with FXS. Neurophysiologic target engagement was evaluated using single doses of the GABAB selective agonist racemic baclofen (RBAC). Results: In Fmr1 KO mice and in humans with FXS, baclofen use was synchronously associated with suppression of elevated gamma power and increase in theta power at rest. In the Frm1 KO mice, a baclofen-associated improvement in auditory chirp synchronization was also noted. Conclusions: Overall, we noted synchronized target engagement of RBAC on resting state electrophysiology, in particular the reduction of aberrant high frequency gamma activity, across species in FXS. This finding holds promise for translational medicine approaches to drug development for FXS, synchronizing treatment study across species using well-established EEG biological markers in this field. Trial Registration: The human experiments are registered under NCT02998151.

2021 ◽  
Zhongmin Fan ◽  
Lu Yin ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Hongwei Ma ◽  
You Wu ◽  

Abstract Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a complication of sepsis that has high morbidity rates. Long-lasting depression is a major mental health disorder in patients with SAE that results in a substantial decrease in quality of life and economic burden. However, the underlying mechanism of SAE is unclear, and effective treatments are not available. In the current study, we explored the role of apoptosis and necroptosis related to depression in sepsis. In a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), we detected mental impairments by the open field test, elevated-plus maze and forced swimming test on the fourteenth day. Moreover, apoptosis- and necroptosis-associated proteins and morphological changes were examined in the hippocampus of the septic mice. These mice showed depression-like behaviors at 14 days after CLP, with substantial increases in neuronal apoptosis and necroptosis. Importantly, we found that apoptosis and necroptosis were related according to Ramsay’s rule in the brains of the septic mice. Inhibiting the function of MD2, the crosstalk mediator of apoptosis and necroptosis, in neurons effectively reduced neuronal loss and alleviated depression-like behaviors in the septic mice. These results suggest that neuronal death in the hippocampus contributes to the mental impairments in SAE and that inhibiting neuronal MD2 is a new strategy for treatment of mental health issues in sepsis by inhibiting necroptosis and apoptosis.

2021 ◽  
Rui Xu ◽  
Li Zhao ◽  
Jiyu Liu ◽  
Lin Cao ◽  
Tianyi Zhao ◽  

Abstract Objective: Gout is a common arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals. Macrophage is crucial in the process of monosodium urate (MSU) -induced inflammation. Although it has been reported that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in nature can be used to cure urarthritis, the mechanism concerning macrophage is still not clear. This study aims to explore how natural ACTH can alleviate urarthritis through functional changes in macrophage. Methods: We analysed the variations in VAS pain scores of five patients, knowing the time of action, and detecting the level of cortisol and ACTH in patients 24 hours after the application of ACTH. The effect of natural ACTH on joint inflammation and the level of cortisol in blood in mouse model was evaluated by studies in vivo. In vitro studies we evaluated the effect of natural ACTH on macrophage and revealed different functions of ACTH and dexamethasone on macrophage in the transcriptional level. Results: In patients with acute gout, natural ACTH can quickly alleviate pain and has no effect on the level of cortisol and ACTH. Natural ACTH is able to ease the swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration caused by arthritis, without changing the level of cortisol. Besides, natural ACTH in vitro can alleviate acute gouty inflammation by regulating phagocytosis and polarization of macrophage, which also exert different effects on the transcription of some related genes.Conclusion: Natural ACTH is able to alleviate acute gouty inflammation by regulating macrophage, and this effect differs from that of dexamethasone in the transcriptional level.

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