assay system
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ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Zuying Feng ◽  
Qingsheng Guo ◽  
Yao Wang ◽  
Yunfei Ge ◽  
Zhiying Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Nandita Kedia ◽  
Saptarshi Banerjee ◽  
Arindam Mondal

Mini-genome reporter assay is a key tool for conducting RNA virus research. But, procedural complications and lack of adequate literature pose major challenge towards developing these assay systems. Here we present a novel yet generic and simple cloning strategy for construction of influenza B virus reporter RNA template and describe extensive standardization of the reporter RNP/polymerase activity assay for monitoring viral RNA synthesis in infection free setting. Using this assay system, we, for the first time showed the effect of viral protein NS1 and host protein PKC-Delta upon influenza B virus RNA synthesis. Additionally, the assay system showed promising results in evaluating the efficacy of antiviral drugs targeting viral RNA synthesis and virus propagation. Together, this work offers a detailed protocol for standardization of influenza virus mini-genome assay and an excellent tool for screening of host factors and antivirals in a fast, user friendly and high throughput manner.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Eduarde Rohner ◽  
Nevin Witman ◽  
Jesper Sohlmer ◽  
Erwin De Genst ◽  
William E. Louch ◽  

Abstract Background The human L39X phospholamban (PLN) cardiomyopathic mutant has previously been reported as a null mutation but the detailed molecular pathways that lead to the complete lack of detectable protein remain to be clarified. Previous studies have shown the implication between an impaired cellular degradation homeostasis and cardiomyopathy development. Therefore, uncovering the underlying mechanism responsible for the lack of PLN protein has important implications in understanding the patient pathology, chronic human calcium dysregulation and aid the development of potential therapeutics. Methods A panel of mutant and wild-type reporter tagged PLN modified mRNA (modRNA) constructs were transfected in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Lysosomal and proteasomal chemical inhibitors were used together with cell imaging and protein analysis tools in order to dissect degradation pathways associated with expressed PLN constructs. Transcriptional profiling of the cardiomyocytes transfected by wild-type or L39X mutant PLN modRNA was analysed with bulk RNA sequencing. Results Our modRNA assay system revealed that transfected L39X mRNA was stable and actively translated in vitro but with only trace amount of protein detectable. Proteasomal inhibition of cardiomyocytes transfected with L39X mutant PLN modRNA showed a fourfold increase in protein expression levels. Additionally, RNA sequencing analysis of protein degradational pathways showed a significant distinct transcriptomic signature between wild-type and L39X mutant PLN modRNA transfected cardiomyocytes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the cardiomyopathic PLN null mutant L39X is rapidly, actively and specifically degraded by proteasomal pathways. Herein, and to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the usage of modified mRNAs to screen for and illuminate alternative molecular pathways found in genes associated with inherited cardiomyopathies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 114367
Chiharu Yamamoto ◽  
Mikako Ogura ◽  
Ryota Uemura ◽  
Maeda Megumi ◽  
Hiroyuki Kajiura ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 111 ◽  
pp. 107035
David D. Tran ◽  
Erin Roberts ◽  
Yosuke Kurokawa ◽  
Eugene K. Lee ◽  
Virginia Kwan ◽  

Hongzhi Huang ◽  
Xiaozhao Liu ◽  
Juanbo Cheng ◽  
Linxia Xu ◽  
Ximiao He ◽  

Hiroyuki Ashida ◽  
Yoshihiro Sawa ◽  
Tohru Yoshimura

Abstract An enzymatic assay system of D-Ala, which is reported to affect the taste, was constructed using alanine racemase and L-alanine dehydrogenase. D-Ala is converted to L-Ala by alanine racemase and then deaminated by L-alanine dehydrogenase with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, which is determined with water-soluble tetrazolium. Using the assay system, the D-Ala contents of seven crustaceans were determined.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 996
Jung Sun Min ◽  
Sunoh Kwon ◽  
Young-Hee Jin

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), urgently needs effective prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), essential for replicating and transcribing a viral RNA genome, is highly conserved in coronaviruses; thus, it is a potential target for inhibiting coronavirus infection. In this study, we generated the cell-based SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity assay system by modifying a previously reported cell-based MERS-CoV RdRp activity assay system to screen for SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors. The assay system consisted of an expression plasmid encoding SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and an RdRp activity reporter plasmid. RdRp activity in the cells could be conveniently detected by luminescence after transfection. We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 RdRp replicated double-stranded RNA using immunofluorescence staining and the inhibition of RdRp activity by remdesivir and lycorine using this system. Moreover, the Z-factor of this system was calculated to be 0.798, suggesting the reproducibility and reliability of the high-throughput screening system. Finally, we screened nucleoside and nucleotide analogs and identified adefovir dipivoxil, emtricitabine, telbivudine, entecavir hydrate, moroxydine and rifampin as novel SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors and therapeutic candidates for COVID-19. This system provides an effective high-throughput screening system platform for developing potential prophylactic and therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 and emerging coronavirus infections.

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