cytochrome c
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Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (4) ◽  
pp. 546-558

This paper reports four new species of the primitively segmented spider genus Songthela from Chongqing Municipality, China, based on morphological characters of both males and females: S. jinyun sp. nov., S. longbao sp. nov., S. serriformis sp. nov. and S. wangerbao sp. nov. We also provide the GenBank accession codes of mitochondrial DNA barcode gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), for the holotype of four new species for future identification.  

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Abhinav B. Swaminathan ◽  
Vishal M. Gohil

Copper is essential for the stability and activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Copper is bound to COX1 and COX2, two core subunits of CcO, forming the CuB and CuA sites, respectively. Biogenesis of these two copper sites of CcO occurs separately and requires a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins that form the mitochondrial copper delivery pathway. Pathogenic mutations in some of the proteins of the copper delivery pathway, such as SCO1, SCO2, and COA6, have been shown to cause fatal infantile human disorders, highlighting the biomedical significance of understanding copper delivery mechanisms to CcO. While two decades of studies have provided a clearer picture regarding the biochemical roles of SCO1 and SCO2 proteins, some discrepancy exists regarding the function of COA6, the new member of this pathway. Initial genetic and biochemical studies have linked COA6 with copper delivery to COX2 and follow-up structural and functional studies have shown that it is specifically required for the biogenesis of the CuA site by acting as a disulfide reductase of SCO and COX2 proteins. Its role as a copper metallochaperone has also been proposed. Here, we critically review the recent literature regarding the molecular function of COA6 in CuA biogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
Yunjie Wei ◽  
Junhao Zhao ◽  
Jian Xiong ◽  
Jingjing Chai ◽  
Xi Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ajay Rajaram ◽  
Daniel Milej ◽  
Marianne Suwalski ◽  
Lilian Kebaya ◽  
Matthew Kewin ◽  

AbstractA major concern with preterm birth is the risk of neurodevelopmental disability. Poor cerebral circulation leading to periods of hypoxia is believed to play a significant role in the etiology of preterm brain injury, with the first three days of life considered the period when the brain is most vulnerable. This study focused on monitoring cerebral perfusion and metabolism during the first 72 h after birth in preterm infants weighing less than 1500 g. Brain monitoring was performed by combining hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy to assess oxygen saturation and the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO), with diffuse correlation spectroscopy to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF). In seven of eight patients, oxCCO remained independent of CBF, indicating adequate oxygen delivery despite any fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics. In the remaining infant, a significant correlation between CBF and oxCCO was found during the monitoring periods on days 1 and 3. This infant also had the lowest baseline CBF, suggesting the impact of CBF instabilities on metabolism depends on the level of blood supply to the brain. In summary, this study demonstrated for the first time how continuous perfusion and metabolic monitoring can be achieved, opening the possibility to investigate if CBF/oxCCO monitoring could help identify preterm infants at risk of brain injury.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
María Inés Marchesini ◽  
Ansgar Poetsch ◽  
Leticia Soledad Guidolín ◽  
Diego J. Comerci

Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases highly conserved in the three domains of life. Their key roles in eukaryotes are well understood but their contribution to bacterial physiology is still poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that Brucella abortus, the etiological agent of the zoonosis called brucellosis, encodes an active rhomboid protease capable of cleaving model heterologous substrates like Drosophila melanogaster Gurken and Providencia stuartii TatA. To address the impact of rhomboid deletion on B. abortus physiology, the proteomes of mutant and parental strains were compared by shotgun proteomics. About 50% of the B. abortus predicted proteome was identified by quantitative proteomics under two experimental conditions and 108 differentially represented proteins were detected. Membrane associated proteins that showed variations in concentration in the mutant were considered as potential rhomboid targets. This class included nitric oxide reductase subunit C NorC (Q2YJT6) and periplasmic protein LptC involved in LPS transport to the outer membrane (Q2YP16). Differences in secretory proteins were also addressed. Differentially represented proteins included a putative lytic murein transglycosylase (Q2YIT4), nitrous-oxide reductase NosZ (Q2YJW2) and high oxygen affinity Cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase subunit (Q2YM85). Deletion of rhomboid had no obvious effect in B. abortus virulence. However, rhomboid overexpression had a negative impact on growth under static conditions, suggesting an effect on denitrification enzymes and/or high oxygen affinity cytochrome c oxidase required for growth in low oxygen tension conditions.

2022 ◽  
Riyad Almaimani ◽  
Akhmed Aslam ◽  
Jawwad Ahmad ◽  
Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi ◽  
Mohamed El-Boshy ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Chemoresistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is common during colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. This study measured the chemotherapeutic effects of 5-FU, calcitriol, and/or metformin single/dual/triple regimens as complementary/alternative therapies. Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into: negative and positive (PC) controls, 5-FU, Cal, Met, 5-FU/Cal, 5-FU/Met, Cal/Met, and 5-FU/Cal/Met groups. Treatments lasted four weeks following CRC induction by azoxymethane. The therapeutic regimens were also applied in the SW480 and SW620 CRC cell lines. Results: The PC mice had abundant tumours, markedly elevated proliferation markers (survivin/CCND1) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR alongside reduced p21/PTEN/Cytochrome-C/Caspase-3 and apoptosis. All therapies reduced tumour numbers, with 5-FU/Cal/Met most prominent regimen. All protocols also decreased cell proliferation markers, inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR molecules, increased pro-apoptotic molecules with apoptosis index, and 5-FU/Cal/Met revealed the strongest anti-cancer effects. In vitro, all therapies equally induced G1-phase arrest in SW480 cells, whereas metformin-alone showed maximal SW620 cell numbers in G0/G1-phase. 5-FU/Met co-therapy also showed the highest apoptotic SW480 cell numbers (13%), whilst 5-FU/Cal/Met disclosed the lowest percentage (81%) of viable SW620 cells. Moreover, 5-FU/Cal/Met revealed maximal inhibitions of cell cycle inducers (CCND1/CCND3), cell survival (BCL2) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR molecules alongside highest expression of cell cycle inhibitors (p21/p27), pro-apoptotic markers (BAX/Cytochrome-C/Caspase-3), and PTEN in both cell lines. Conclusions: Metformin monotherapy was superior to calcitriol, whereas the 5-FU/metformin protocol showed better anti-cancer effects relative to the other dual therapies. However, the 5-FU/Cal/Met approach displayed the best in vivo and in vitro tumoricidal effects related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, justifiably by enhanced modulations of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway.

2022 ◽  
Yaorong Zheng ◽  
Amarasooriya M. D. S. Jayawardhana

In this work, we present the first study about the interactions of mitochondria-damaging Pt(IV) prodrugs with cytochrome c. We synthesized a cisplatin-based Pt(IV) prodrug bearing a lipophilic hydrocarbon tail and...

2022 ◽  
Vol 450 ◽  
pp. 214233
Gonzalo Pérez-Mejías ◽  
Antonio Díaz-Quintana ◽  
Alejandra Guerra-Castellano ◽  
Irene Díaz-Moreno ◽  
Miguel A. De la Rosa

2021 ◽  
Willem J. van der Laarse ◽  
Sylvia J.P. Bogaards ◽  
Ingrid Schalij ◽  
Anton Vonk Noordegraaf ◽  
Frédérick M. Vaz ◽  

Right-sided myocardial mechanical efficiency (work output/metabolic energy input) in pulmonary hypertension can be severely reduced. We determined the contribution of intrinsic myocardial determinants of efficiency using papillary muscle preparations from monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive (MCT-PH) rats. The hypothesis was tested that efficiency is reduced by mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to increased activation heat reported previously. Right ventricular (RV) muscle preparations were subjected to 5 Hz sinusoidal length changes at 37°C. Work and suprabasal oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured before and after cross-bridge inhibition by blebbistatin. Cytosolic cytochrome c concentration, myocyte cross-sectional area, proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (PP IMM), and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activities and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL) contents were determined. Mechanical efficiency ranged from 23 to 11% in control (n = 6) and from 22 to 1% in MCT-PH (n = 15) and correlated with work (r2 = 0.68, P < 0.0001) but not with VO2 (r2 = 0.004, P = 0.7919). VO2 for cross-bridge cycling was proportional to work (r2 = 0.56, P = 0.0005). Blebbistatin-resistant VO2 (r2 = 0.32, P = 0.0167) and IMM PP (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.0110) correlated inversely with efficiency. Together, these variables explained the variance of efficiency (coefficient of multiple determination R2 = 0.79, P = 0.0001). Cytosolic cytochrome c correlated inversely with work (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.0391), but not with efficiency (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.0867). G-6-PDH, MAO-A and PG/CL increased in the RV wall of MCT-PH but did not correlate with efficiency. Reduced myocardial efficiency in MCT-PH is due to activation processes and mitochondrial dysfunction. The variance of work and the ratio of activation heat reported previously and blebbistatin-resistant VO2 are discussed.

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