Platelet Function
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiuguang He ◽  
You Zhou ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Zhongqiu Chen ◽  
Rong Wen ◽  
...  

Background and Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of thromboelastography with platelet mapping (TEG-PM) for predicting hematoma expansion (HE) and poor functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).Methods: Patients with primary ICH who underwent baseline computed tomography (CT) and TEG-PM within 6 h after symptom onset were enrolled in the observational cohort study. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the association of admission platelet function with HE and functional outcome. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis investigated the accuracy of platelet function in predicting HE. A mediation analysis was undertaken to determine causal associations among platelet function, HE, and outcome.Results: Of 142 patients, 37 (26.1%) suffered HE. Multivariate logistic regression identified arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) inhibition as significant independent predictors of HE. The area under the ROC curves was 0.727 for AA inhibition and 0.721 for ADP inhibition. Optimal threshold for AA inhibition was 41.75% (75.7% sensitivity; 67.6% specificity) and ADP inhibition was 65.8% (73.0% sensitivity; 66.7% specificity). AA and ADP inhibition were also associated with worse 3-month outcomes after adjusting for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline hematoma volume, and hemoglobin. The mediation analysis showed that the effect of higher platelet inhibition with poor outcomes was mediated through HE.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the reduced platelet response to ADP and AA independently predict HE and poor outcome in patients with ICH. Platelet function may represent a modifiable target of ICH treatment.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2737
Author(s):  
Benedetta Izzi ◽  
Alessandro Gialluisi ◽  
Francesco Gianfagna ◽  
Sabatino Orlandi ◽  
Amalia De Curtis ◽  
...  

Defined as an index of platelet size heterogeneity, the platelet distribution width (PDW) is still a poorly characterized marker of platelet function in (sub)clinical disease. We presently validated PDW as a marker of P-selectin dependent platelet activation in the Moli-family cohort. Platelet-bound P-selectin and platelet/leukocyte mixed aggregates were measured by flow cytometry in freshly collected venous blood, both before and after in vitro platelet activation, and coagulation time was assessed in unstimulated and LPS- or TNFα-stimulated whole blood. Closure Times (CT) were measured in a Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100. Multivariable linear mixed effect regression models (with age, sex and platelet count as fixed and family structure as random effect) revealed PDW to be negatively associated with platelet P-selectin, platelet/leukocyte aggregates and von Willebrand factor (VWF), and positively with PFA-100 CT, and LPS- and TNF-α-stimulated coagulation times. With the exception of VWF, all relationships were sex-independent. In contrast, no association was found between mean platelet volume (MPV) and these variables. PDW seems a simple, useful marker of ex vivo and in vitro P-selectin dependent platelet activation. Investigations of larger cohorts will define the usefulness of PDW as a risk predictor of thrombo-inflammatory conditions where activated platelets play a contributing role.


Author(s):  
Jinxiang Piao ◽  
Chaeyoung Yoo ◽  
SunYoung Kim ◽  
Youn-Wha Whang ◽  
Cheol Ung Choi ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND: Assessment of platelet function is important in the management of patients who are subject to operation as well as at potential risk of hemorrhagic complications. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate a new platelet assays (Anysis-Epinephrine, Anysis-ADP) and to compare them with PFA-200 in cardiology visiting patients and inpatients. METHODS: Citrated blood samples were collected from 184 patients for ADP test and 163 patients for EPI test, who visited Korea University Guro Hospital with written consent. The PFA-200 assay gives a test result the closure time (CT) until the blood flow rate decreases to 10%of the initial value, whereas Anysis-200 assay does a blood flow migration distance (MD) until blood flow completely stops. According to the results of PFA closure time (CT), the tested samples were classified as either negative control or positive group. The measurements were simultaneously conducted with two devices and compared. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of Anysis-200 C/EPI kit in comparison to PFA-200 C/EPI kit was 87.5%and 85.7%, respectively. Regarding C/ADP kit, the sensitivity and specificity of Anysis-200 was 96.9%and 87.5%, respectively. In addition, the sums of sensitivity and specificity are greater than 150%for both of EPI and ADP. Also, it was found that likelihood ratio and odd ratio for each assay provide useful additional information. Since the Cohen’s kappa coefficients value between the two devices was relatively high, the equivalence between the two devices was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Anysis-200, a novel platelet function analyzer has showed excellent agreements with PFA-200 with high agreement rates and precision. Anysis-200 assay would be useful in assessing bleeding risk management as well as abnormal platelet reactivity at point of care.


Author(s):  
Naveen Seecheran ◽  
Kathryn Grimaldos ◽  
Kabeer Ali ◽  
Gabriella Grimaldos ◽  
Srivane Richard ◽  
...  

Transfusion ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sian Huish ◽  
Laura Green ◽  
Carly Kempster ◽  
Peter Smethurst ◽  
Michael Wiltshire ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Sherif W. Mansour ◽  
Mai M. Hasan ◽  
Hossam E. Salah ◽  
Talal El-Deep ◽  
Samia Hussein ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Irisin is an adipomyokine with a promising potential for the treatment of metabolic disturbances and endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to explore the effect of irisin on metabolic and platelet functions, and to explore the possible involvement of soluble receptor of advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model. Thirty-three adult male albino rats were divided into three groups: normal control, vehicle-treated T2DM group, and irisin-treated T2DM. At the end of the study period, metabolic parameters, platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, plateletcrit, and serum sRAGE were determined. Results Irisin significantly improved platelet function and metabolic derangements induced by T2DM and significantly increased sRAGE. sRAGE was significantly negatively associated with platelet function parameters and some glucometabolic parameters. Additionally, mean platelet volume showed a significant predictive value for the change in serum sRAGE. Conclusions Irisin could have a protective role against diabetes-induced platelet dysfunction by increasing sRAGE levels, indicating the potential beneficial effects of sRAGE in the type 2 diabetic rat model.


Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1455
Author(s):  
Ilse A. C. Arnoldussen ◽  
Renger F. Witkamp

Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of vascular dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies underline that platelets play an important role in linking peripheral with central metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. In this narrative review, we address the activation of platelets in metabolic syndrome, their effects on neuronal processes and the role of the mediators (e.g., serotonin, platelet-derived growth factor). Emerging evidence shows that nutritional compounds and their metabolites modulate these interactions—specifically, long chain fatty acids, endocannabinoids and phenolic compounds. We reviewed the role of activated platelets in neurovascular processes and nutritional compounds in platelet activation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_E) ◽  
pp. E95-E98
Author(s):  
Ferdinando Luca Lorini ◽  
Maria Di Matteo ◽  
Paolo Gritti ◽  
Lorenzo Grazioli ◽  
Alberto Benigni ◽  
...  

Abstract SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with frequent thrombotic events, at the micro and macro-vascular level, due to the perpetuation of a state of hypercoagulability. The so-called ‘COVID-19 associated coagulopathy’ (CAC) represents a key aspect in the genesis of organ damage from SARS-CoV-2. The main coagulative alterations described in the literature are represented by high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen. Although CAC has some common features with disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis-induced coagulopathy, there are important differences between these clinical pictures and the phenotype of CAC is unique. The pathogenesis of CAC is complex and is affected by the strong interconnection between the inflammatory system and coagulation, in the phenomenon of immunothrombosis and thrombo-inflammation. Several mechanisms come into play, such as inflammatory cytokines, neutrophils, the complement system as well as an alteration of the fibrinolytic system. Finally, an altered platelet function and especially endothelial dysfunction also play a central role in the pathophysiology of CAC. Heparin has several potential effects in CAC, in fact in addition to the anticoagulant effect, it could have a direct antiviral effect and anti-inflammatory properties. The high incidence of thrombo-embolic phenomena despite the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis have led some experts to recommend the use of anticoagulant doses of heparin, but at present the optimal anticoagulant regimen remains to be determined.


Author(s):  
Emily Janus-Bell ◽  
Alexandra Yakusheva ◽  
Cyril Scandola ◽  
Nicolas Receveur ◽  
Ahmed Muhammad-Usman ◽  
...  

Objective: Integrins are key regulators of various platelet functions. The pathophysiological importance of most platelet integrins has been investigated, with the exception of α5β1, a receptor for fibronectin. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of α5β1 in megakaryopoiesis, platelet function, and to determine its importance in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Approach and results: We generated a mouse strain deficient for integrin α5β1 on megakaryocytes and platelets (PF4Cre-α5-/-). PF4Cre-α5-/- mice were viable, fertile and presented no apparent signs of abnormality. Megakaryopoiesis appears unaltered as evidence by a normal megakaryocytes morphology and development, which is in agreement with a normal platelet count. Expression of the main platelet receptors and the response of PF4Cre-α5-/- platelets to a series of agonists were all completely normal. Adhesion and aggregation of PF4Cre-α5-/- platelets under shear flow on fibrinogen, laminin or von Willebrand factor were unimpaired. In contrast, PF4Cre-α5-/- platelets displayed a marked decrease in adhesion, activation and aggregation on fibrillar cellular fibronectin and collagen. PF4Cre-α5-/- mice presented no defect in a tail-bleeding time assay and no increase in inflammatory bleeding in a reverse passive Arthus model and a lipopolysaccharide pulmonary inflammation model. Finally, no defects were observed in three distinct experimental models of arterial thrombosis based on ferric chloride-induced injury of the carotid artery, mechanical injury of the abdominal aorta or laser-induced injury of mesenteric vessels. Conclusion: In summary, this study shows that platelet integrin α5β1 is a key receptor for fibrillar cellular fibronectin but is dispensable in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10656
Author(s):  
Samantha F. Moore ◽  
Ejaife O. Agbani ◽  
Andreas Wersäll ◽  
Alastair W. Poole ◽  
Chris M. Williams ◽  
...  

One of the mechanisms by which PI3 kinase can regulate platelet function is through phosphorylation of downstream substrates, including glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)α and GSK3β. Platelet activation results in the phosphorylation of an N-terminal serine residue in GSK3α (Ser21) and GSK3β(Ser9), which competitively inhibits substrate phosphorylation. However, the role of phosphorylation of these paralogs is still largely unknown. Here, we employed GSK3α/β phosphorylation-resistant mouse models to explore the role of this inhibitory phosphorylation in regulating platelet activation. Expression of phosphorylation-resistant GSK3α/β reduced thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, integrin αIIbβ3 activation, and α-granule secretion, whereas platelet responses to the GPVI agonist collagen-related peptide (CRP-XL) were significantly enhanced. GSK3 single knock-in lines revealed that this divergence is due to differential roles of GSK3α and GSK3β phosphorylation in regulating platelet function. Expression of phosphorylation-resistant GSK3α resulted in enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation, whereas expression of phosphorylation-resistant GSK3β resulted in a reduction in PAR-mediated platelet activation and impaired in vitro thrombus formation under flow. Interestingly, the latter was normalised in double GSK3α/β KI mice, indicating that GSK3α KI can compensate for the impairment in thrombosis caused by GSK3β KI. In conclusion, our data indicate that GSK3α and GSK3β have differential roles in regulating platelet function.


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