Photo-isomerizable tweezers to probe ionotropic receptor mechanisms

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 109-116
Laurie Peverini ◽  
Kate Dunning ◽  
Francisco Andres Peralta ◽  
Thomas Grutter
Qin Guo ◽  
Xian-Ming Lin ◽  
Zhong Di ◽  
Quan-Ai Zhang ◽  
Shuo Jiang

Background: Converging evidence indicates that glutamatergic system and glia are directly implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Clinical studies indicate that electroacupuncture (EA) has antidepressant-like effect with low side effects for depression. However, the underlying antidepressant mechanism of acupuncture remains obscure. Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rats were used to induce depressive-like behavior, and evaluated by the weight change, open field test, sucrose preference test, and novelty suppressed feeding test. EA, NMDA receptor subunit 2A antagonist (NR2A RA) or NMDA receptor subunit 2B antagonist (NR2B RA) was used for comparison. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to detect the content of hippocampal glutamate, while western blot for the hippocampal protein expression levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), Bax, caspase 3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). The distribution of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (NR2A), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B (NR2B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunofluorescence. Results: Significant depression behavior (reduced body weight and sucrose preference, increased feeding and immobility time) was produced in CUMS-induced depressive rats, which was reversed significantly by EA. EA decreased hippocampal glutamate level. EA led to a significant decrease in expression levels of Bax, caspase 3 and CaMKⅡ accompanied by increased Bcl-2 expression level. Furthermore, EA significantly increased NR2A expression level as well as decreased NR2B expression level in hippocampus. Conclusion: EA ameliorated depression-like behavior in CUMS rats, which might be mediated, at least in part, by regulating the glutamate, NMDA receptors and apoptosis in the hippocampus.

eLife ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Ji-Eun Ahn ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Hubert Amrein

Behavioral studies have established that Drosophila appetitive taste responses towards fatty acids are mediated by sweet sensing Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs). Here we show that sweet GRN activation requires the function of the Ionotropic Receptor genes IR25a, IR76b and IR56d. The former two IR genes are expressed in several neurons per sensillum, while IR56d expression is restricted to sweet GRNs. Importantly, loss of appetitive behavioral responses to fatty acids in IR25a and IR76b mutant flies can be completely rescued by expression of respective transgenes in sweet GRNs. Interestingly, appetitive behavioral responses of wild type flies to hexanoic acid reach a plateau at ~1%, but decrease with higher concentration, a property mediated through IR25a/IR76b independent activation of bitter GRNs. With our previous report on sour taste, our studies suggest that IR-based receptors mediate different taste qualities through cell-type specific IR subunits.

2008 ◽  
pp. 2056-2060
Kenji Sakimura

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