Expression Levels
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 506-513
Ying Lv ◽  
Liyan Ye ◽  
Xiujuan Zheng

This study aimed to explore the role of ATI-2341 in Asherman’s syndrome and its impact on menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs). Following establishment of endometrial injury model, MenSCs were extracted from rats and cultured. They were treated with ATI-2341 TFA at different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL) and MenSCs treated without ATI-2341 TFA were taken as controls. Flow cytometry was conducted to detect the cell cycle. MTT was carried out to evaluate proliferation of endometrial cells. The expression levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, CK, and VIM were determined with staining used to reflect morphology of endometrium. Administration with ATI-2341 TFA resulted in decreased expression of MMP-9 and increased expression of TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, the increase of ATI-2341 TFA concentration was accompanied with elevated cell proliferation rate, increased number of glands in the endometrium, and decreased fibrosis area. As treated with 100 ng/mL ATI-2341 TFA, the cells exhibited more glands than that under other concentrations with uniformly arranged glands and lowest expression levels of CK and VIM, control group had plenty of blue-stained collagen fibers in the intima and least amount of glands. ATI-2341 TFA 100 ng/mL induced endometrial epithelial recruitment effect on MenSCs and promoted endometrial repair more significantly than Gi-3 pathway agonists. Collectively, ATI-2341 TFA enhances MenSC recruitment and facilitates endometrial epithelial cells proliferation and the repair of uterine damage in Asherman’s syndrome through Gi pathway. These findings provide a\ novel insight into the MenSC-based treatment against Asherman’s syndrome and deserve further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 770-777
Siyuan Chen ◽  
Weixiong Guo ◽  
Jinsong Wei ◽  
Han Lin ◽  
Fengyan Guo

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of has_circ_0010452 in the progression of osteoporosis (OP) targeting miR-543, as well as their functions in regulating proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods: The expression levels of circ_0010452 and miR-543 in hBMSCs at different time points of osteogenic differentiation were determined by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). After transfection of circ_0010452 siRNA or miR-543 inhibitor in hBMSCs, the relative expression levels of osteogenic marker proteins, including oat spelt xylan (OSX), osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col-1), were determined by western blot. Cell proliferation of hBMSCs was valued by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay. Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to verify the relationship between circ_0010452 and miR-543. Subsequently, the regulatory effects of circ_0010452 and miR-543 on osteogenic differentiation and the capability of mineralization were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) determination and alizarin red staining, respectively. Results: The expression of circ_0010452 decreased gradually and miR-543 increased in hBMSCs with the prolongation of osteogenic differentiation. circ_0010452 could bind to miR-543, which was negatively regulated by miR-543 in hBMSCs. Moreover, knockdown of circ_0010452 inhibited proliferation and osteogenic differentiation by upregulating miR-543, as well as upregulating expressions of OSX, OCN and Col-1. Furthermore, knockdown of circ_0010452 markedly promoted the capability of mineralization of hBMSCs, which was further reversed by transfection of miR-543 inhibitor. The knockdown of miR-543 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of circ_0010452 on the osteogenesis of hBMSCs. Conclusions: Silence of circ_0010452 promotes the development of OP via binding to miR-543 regulating proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, thus promoting the progression of osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Eitan Margulis ◽  
Yuli Slavutsky ◽  
Tatjana Lang ◽  
Mike Behrens ◽  
Yuval Benjamini ◽  

Bitterness is an aversive cue elicited by thousands of chemically diverse compounds. Bitter taste may prevent consumption of foods and jeopardize drug compliance. The G protein-coupled receptors for bitter taste, TAS2Rs, have species-dependent number of subtypes and varying expression levels in extraoral tissues. Molecular recognition by TAS2R subtypes is physiologically important, and presents a challenging case study for ligand-receptor matchmaking. Inspired by hybrid recommendation systems, we developed a new set of similarity features, and created the BitterMatch algorithm that predicts associations of ligands to receptors with ~80% precision at ~50% recall. Associations for several compounds were tested in-vitro, resulting in 80% precision and 42% recall. The encouraging performance was achieved by including receptor properties and integrating experimentally determined ligand-receptor associations with chemical ligand-to-ligand similarities. BitterMatch can predict off-targets for bitter drugs, identify novel ligands and guide flavor design. Inclusion of neighbor-informed similarities improves as experimental data mounts, and provides a generalizable framework for molecule-biotarget matching.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Lide Alaña ◽  
Caroline E. Nunes-Xavier ◽  
Laura Zaldumbide ◽  
Idoia Martin-Guerrero ◽  
Lorena Mosteiro ◽  

Medulloblastoma is the primary malignant tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS) most common in pediatrics. We present here, the histological, molecular, and functional analysis of a cohort of 88 pediatric medulloblastoma tumor samples. The WNT-activated subgroup comprised 10% of our cohort, and all WNT-activated patients had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations and were immunostained for nuclear β-catenin. One novel heterozygous CTNNB1 mutation was found, which resulted in the deletion of β-catenin Ser37 residue (ΔS37). The ΔS37 β-catenin variant ectopically expressed in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells displayed higher protein expression levels than wild-type β-catenin, and functional analysis disclosed gain-of-function properties in terms of elevated TCF/LEF transcriptional activity in cells. Our results suggest that the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of ΔS37 β-catenin contributed to early medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Chemotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Cheng Yang ◽  
Na Xie ◽  
Zhifei Luo ◽  
Xiling Ruan ◽  
Yixin Zhang ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> We investigated the function of cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) on the prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> CDC6 protein expression levels in 121 patients with colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Compared to adjacent normal tissues, CDC6 mRNA level was overexpressed in CRC tissues. Moreover, CDC6 protein levels were expressed up to 93.39% (113/121) in CRC tissues in the cell nucleus or cytoplasm. However, there were only 5.79% (7/121) in normal mucosal tissues with nuclear expression. CDC6 expression was significantly correlated with TNM stage and tumor metastasis. The 5-year survival rate was lower in the high CDC6 expression group than the low group. After silencing of CDC6 expression in SW620 cells, cell proliferation was slowed, the tumor clones were decreased, and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. In multivariate analysis, increased CDC6 protein expression levels in colon cancer tissues were associated with cancer metastasis, TNM stage, and patient survival time. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> CDC6 is highly expressed in CRC, and downregulation of CDC6 can slow the growth of CRC cells in vitro. It is also an independent predictor for poor prognosis and may be a useful biomarker for targeted therapy and prognostic evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Adrian Deichsel ◽  
Anna Giuseppe ◽  
Isabel Zeinert ◽  
Kerstin Katharina Rauwolf ◽  
Ning Lu ◽  

Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) undergo a tumor-like transformation, wherein they develop an aggressive phenotype that is characterized by increased adhesion to components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) and that contributes extensively to joint destruction. The collagen-binding integrin alpha11beta1 was previously shown to be involved in similar processes in cancer-associated fibroblasts mediating tumorigenicity and metastasis in certain tumors. Therefore, this study aimed to study the role of integrin alpha11beta1 in RA and to characterize the effects of alpha11beta1 deficiency on the disease course and severity in arthritic hTNFtg mice. Methods: The expression levels of integrin alpha11beta1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blot analysis in synovial samples and FLS of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA) as well as in samples from wild type (wt) and arthritic hTNFtg mice. Furthermore, the subcellular expression of integrin alpha11beta1 was investigated in co-culture experiments with cartilage explants and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To investigate the effects of integrin alpha11beta1 deficiency, itga11-/- mice were interbred with hTNFtg mice and disease severity was assessed by clinical scoring of grip strength and paw swelling over the disease course. Hind paws of 12-weeks-old mice of all genotypes were analyzed by uCT imaging followed by stainings of paraffin-embedded tissue sections with Toluidine-blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) to evaluate established parameters of joint destruction such as inflammation area, cartilage destaining, FLS attachment to the cartilage surface, and bone damage. Results: Expression levels of integrin alpha11beta1 were clearly elevated in synovial tissues and FLS from RA patients and hTNFtg mice, compared to the controls derived from OA patients and wt mice. Interestingly, this expression was shown to be particularly localized in focal adhesions of the FLS. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy, integrin alpha11beta1 expression was particularly evident in areas of direct cellular contact with the ECM of cartilage. Evaluations of clinical scorings and histomorphological analyses demonstrated that itga11-/-hTNFtg displayed alleviated clinical symptoms, higher bone volume, less cartilage destruction, and reduced FLS attachment to the cartilage in comparison to hTNFtg mice. Conclusions: The collagen-binding integrin alpha11beta1 is upregulated in the context of RA and its deficiency in mice with an inflammatory hTNFtg background leads to a significant reduction in the arthritic phenotype which makes integrin alpha11beta1 an interesting target for therapeutical intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (1) ◽  
pp. 137-143
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Behnoush Sohrabi ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Elham Mehravaran ◽  
Elena Jamali ◽  

TP53 encodes a major tumor suppressor protein which blocks carcinogenesis process in a variety of tissues including breast tissue. Expression and function of this gene is regulated by a number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) among them are PANDA, MEG3 and CASC2. We measured expression of TP53 and these transcripts in a cohort of Iranian breast cancer patients. Expression levels of TP53, MEG3, CASC2 and PANDA were significantly lower in tumoral samples compared with non-tumoral samples (Posterior mean differences =  −4.26, −1.66, −5.98 and −3.13, respectively; P values < 0.0001). Expression of CASC2 was higher in Her2 1+ cases compared with Her2 negative cases (Beta = 1.85, P value = 0.037). Expression levels of MEG3 and TP53 were lower in grade 2 samples compared with grade 1 (Beta = −1.86, P value = 0.006 and Beta = −2.24, P value = 0.003, respectively). There was no other significant association between expression of genes and clinical variables. CASC2 had the best performance among these genes with area under curve value of 0.78 and sensitivity and specificity values of 56.33% and 88.73%, respectively (P value < 0.0001). The current investigation supports the role of TP53-related lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuping Yan ◽  
Pingsheng Ye ◽  
Muhammad Tahir Aleem ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Nana Xie ◽  

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of homing injury sites to exert anti-inflammatory as well as anti-damage effects and can be used as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in numerous inflammatory diseases, but fewer studies have been reported in animal mastitis. We hypothesized that MSCs overexpressing ACE2 is more effective in ameliorating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in mammary epithelial cells compared to MSCs alone. The results showed that MSC-ACE2 inhibited the LPS induction by upregulation of TNF-α, IL-Iβ, IL-6, and iNOS mRNA expression levels in EpH4-Ev cells compared with MSCs. Furthermore, results showed that both MSC and MSC-ACE2 were significantly activated IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway as well as inhibited TLR4/NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, but MSC-ACE2 had more significant effects. Meanwhile, MSC-ACE2 promoted the expression of proliferation-associated proteins and inhibited the expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins in EpH4-Ev cells. In addition, MSC and MSC-ACE2 reversed the LPS-induced downregulation expression levels of the tight junction proteins in mammary epithelial cells, indicating that both MSC as well as MSC-ACE2 could promote blood-milk barrier repair, and MSC-ACE2 was more effective. These results suggested that MSCs overexpressing ACE2 were more anti-inflammatory as well as anti-injurious action into LPS-induced inflammatory injury in the EpH4-Ev cells. Thus, MSCs overexpressing ACE2 is expected to serve as a potential strategy for mastitis treatment.

2022 ◽  
Xinrui Wang ◽  
Zhihong Yin ◽  
Lingli Chen ◽  
Liushuai Hua ◽  
Fei Ren ◽  

Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the typical environmental endocrine disruptors. BPA was leached from polycarbonate containers into food and water, and it has been detected in collective samples from humans. Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and Tau maintain microtubule normal function and promote the normal development of the nervous system. Synaptophysin (SYP) and drebrin (Dbn) proteins are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity. This study aimed to determine the adverse effects of BPA on Neuro-2a cells by investigating the synaptic and cytoskeletal damage. Cells were exposed to 0 (Minimum Essential Medium, MEM), 0.01% (v/v) DMSO and 150 µM BPA for 12, 24, or 36 h. Morphological analysis revealed that the cells in the BPA-treated groups shrank, collapsed, and had a reduced number of synapses compared with those in the control groups. CCK-8 and LDH assays showed that the mortality of Neuro-2a cells increased as the BPA treatment time was prolonged. Transmission electron microscopic analysis further revealed that cells demonstrated nucleolar swelling and nuclear membrane and partial mitochondrial dissolution or condensation following BPA exposure. BPA also significantly decreased the relative protein expression levels of MAP2, Tau, and Dbn (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the relative protein expression levels of SYP increased (P < 0.01). These results indicated that BPA damaged the development and proliferation of Neuro-2a cells by disrupting cytoskeleton and synaptic integrity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 849
Markus V. Heppt ◽  
Anja Wessely ◽  
Eva Hornig ◽  
Claudia Kammerbauer ◽  
Saskia A. Graf ◽  

The neural crest transcription factor BRN3A is essential for the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells. It is frequently expressed in melanoma but not in normal melanocytes or benign nevi. The mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of BRN3A are unknown. Here, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of BRN3A in melanocytes and melanoma cell lines treated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. DNMT and HAT inhibition did not significantly alter BRN3A expression levels, whereas panHDAC inhibition by trichostatin A led to increased expression. Treatment with the isoform-specific HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat, but not with PCI-34051, also increased BRN3A expression levels, suggesting that class I HDACs HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, and class IV HDAC11, were involved in the regulation of BRN3A expression. Transient silencing of HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 11 by siRNAs revealed that, specifically, HDAC2 inhibition was able to increase BRN3A expression. ChIP-Seq analysis uncovered that HDAC2 inhibition specifically increased H3K27ac levels at a distal enhancer region of the BRN3A gene. Altogether, our data suggest that HDAC2 is a key epigenetic regulator of BRN3A in melanocytes and melanoma cells. These results highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating melanoma oncogenes.

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