Objective: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been considered as the origin of tumor metastasis and recurrence, which always indicate a poor prognosis. There are three phenotypes of CTCs according on different epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, including epithelial,
mesenchymal, and epithelial/mesenchymal (mixed phenotypic) CTCs. We intended to explore the relationship among CTC phenotypes and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 58 patients with
DTC were collected, and CTCs were isolated by cell sizes. To identify phenotypes of CTCs, branched DNA signal amplification technology was adopted to capture and amplify target sequences, and then multiplex RNA-in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) assay was used to identify CTC phenotypes
depended on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Results: The positive rate of CTCs was 77.59% in 58 DTC patients. Totally, 488 CTCs with detective phenotype were found. Among them, there were 121 (24.80%) epithelial CTCs, 67 (13.72%) mesenchymal CTCs, and 300 (61.48%) mixed
phenotypic CTCs. An obvious increased epithelial CTCs was observed in male patients compared with female. Notably, CTCs were more prevailing in younger male patients with ETI and bilateral focus. Conclusions: The CTCs are common in DTC patients, and mixed phenotypic is the major phenotype,
indicating that EMT is prevalent in DTC even though its prognosis was better than other epithelial tumors. Detection of CTC and its phenotypes might independently predict the prognosis of DTC.
Abnormal MEK1 expression is associated with tumor cell EMT, invasion and metastasis. Decreased miR-16 level is associated with glioma. Bioinformatics analysis showed a relationship between miR-16 and MEK1. This study assessed whether miR-16 regulates MEK1 expression and affects glioma
cell EMT and invasion. The tumor tissues and adjacent glioma tissues were collected to measure miR-16 and MEK1 mRNA. The dual luciferase assay validated the relation of miR-16 with MEK1. U251 cells were cultured and assigned into NC group and mimic group, followed by analysis of cell biological
behaviors, and MEK1, p-ERK1/2, E-cadherin, N-Cadherin expression. Compared with adjacent tissues, miR-16 expression was significantly decreased and MEK1 was elevated in glioma tissues. Compared with HEB, miR-16 in glioma U251 and SHG44 cells was decreased and MEK1 was increased. Dual luciferase
reporter gene experiments confirmed the relation of miR-16 with MEK1. Transfection of miR-16 mimic significantly down-regulated MEK1, p-ERK1/2 and N-cadherin in U251 cells, upregulated E-cadherin, inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and attenuated EMT and invasion of glioma cells.
In conclusion, decreased miR-16 expression and increased MEK1 expression is related to glioma pathogenesis. Overexpression of miR-16 can inhibit MEK1 expression, ERK/MAPK signaling, glioma cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and attenuate EMT and invasion.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to the migrating and invading behaviors of cells. Periostin is one of the essential components in the extracellular matrix and can induce EMT of cells and their sequential metastasis. But its underlying mechanism is unclear.
The Hela and BMSC cell lines were assigned into Periostin-mimic group, Periostin-Inhibitor group and Periostin-NC group followed by analysis of cell migration and invasion, expression of E-Cadherin, Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, PTEN, and p-PTEN. Cells in Periostin-mimic
group exhibited lowest migration, least number of invaded cells, as well as lowest levels of Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, p-PTEN, Akt, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, p-PDK1 and p-cRcf, along with highest levels of E-cadherin and PTEN. Moreover, cells in Periostin-NC
group had intermediate levels of these above indicators, while, the Periostin-Inhibitor group exhibited the highest migration rate, the most number of invaded cells, and the highest levels of these proteins (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSCs-derived Periostin can influence the EMT
of cervical cancer cells possibly through restraining the activity of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, indicating that Periostin might be a target of chemotherapy in clinics for the treatment of cervical cancer.
This study intends to assess miR-653’s expression in MSCs and OSCC and discuss molecular biological mechanism of changes of EMT in MSCs through activating miR-653 in OSCC. miR-653 expression in MSCs and OSCC was detected. si-miR-653 was transfected into MSCs followed by analysis
of cell proliferation by CCK-8 and clone formation assay, cell apoptosis and cycle by FCM, and the changes of transcription factor as ZEB1 and Snail by qRT-PCR. miR-653 expression in OSCC cell was up-regulated significantly from the result of q-RT-PCR detection. The proliferation of MSCs induced
by miR-653 was restrained and apoptotic rate was increased after treatment with si-miR-653 along with stagnated cycle of G1/G0 staging cell. The expression of transcription factor of EMT type as ZEB1 and Snail was elevated significantly after intervention using si-miR-653. In conclusion, the
proliferation of OSCC could be induced by MSCs through activation with miR-653 which might be through regulation of EMT process.
Hormone support (estrogen and progesterone) is a key factor in decidualization and embryo implantation. Elevated levels of estrogen lead to luteal phase defects through Neuropilin 1, a membranecytoskeleton junction protein. This study aimed to explore the effect of BMSCs on endometrial
stromal cells (ESCs) in adenomyosis. ESCs obtained from patients with adenomyosis were cocultured with BMSCs in the absence of presence of Neuropilin 1 inhibitor followed by analysis of expression of decidualization-related genes by RT-qPCR and western blot, cell viability by MTT assay, cell
invasion and migration by Transwell assay, oxidative stress factors by ROS kit. Treatment with Neuropilin 1 inhibitor significantly decreased ESC proliferation and invasion, blocked epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and restrained decidualization with a downregulation of decidualization-related
genes. Furthermore, inhibition of Neuropilin 1 exerted effects through estrogen regulation. However, co-culture with BMSCs restored ESC activity by promoting Neuropilin expression and enhanced intrauterine ESC decidualization. In conclusion, Neuropilin 1 inhibitor restrains decidualization
through estrogen regulation which can be abrogated by estrogen receptor antagonists. BMSCs restore the damaged ESC decidualization through increasing Neuropilin 1 expression, which provides new insights into the adverse effect of Neuropilin 1 on human ESCs, suggesting that BMSC is a potential
therapeutic drug candidate for adenomyosis.
Mutation-selective drugs constitute a great advancement in personalized anticancer treatment with increased quality of life and overall survival in cancers. However, the high adaptability and evasiveness of cancers can lead to disease progression and the development of drug resistance, which cause recurrence and metastasis. A common characteristic in advanced neoplastic cancers is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly interconnected with H2O2 signaling, increased motility and invasiveness. H2O2 relays its signal through the installation of oxidative posttranslational modifications on cysteines. The increased H2O2 levels that are associated with an EMT confer a heightened sensitivity towards the induction of ferroptosis as a recently discovered vulnerability.
Cancer tissue consists of heterogenous cell types, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of the tissue which possess therapy resistance, tumor reconstruction capability, and are responsible for metastasis. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is one of the most common type of liver cancer that is highly aggressive with poor prognosis. Since no target therapy is efficient in improving patient outcomes, new therapeutic approaches need to be developed. CSC is thought to be a promising therapeutic target because of its resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences suggests that there are many factors (surface marker, stemness-related genes, etc.) and mechanisms (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mitochondria activity, etc.) which are linked to CSC-like phenotypes. Nevertheless, limited studies are reported about the application of therapy using these mechanisms, suggesting that more precise understandings are still needed. In this review, we overview the molecular mechanisms which modulate CSC-like phenotypes, and discuss the future perspective for targeting CSC in iCCA.
Regenerating liver phosphatase 1 (PRL1) is an established oncogene in various cancers, although its biological function and the underlying mechanisms in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remain unclear. Here, we showed that PRL1 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and positively correlated with the tumor grade. Consistently, ectopic expression of PRL1 in glioma cell lines significantly enhanced their tumorigenicity and invasion both in vitro and in vivo by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Conversely, knocking down PRL1 blocked EMT in GBM cells, and inhibited their invasion, migration and tumorigenic growth. Additionally, PRL1 also stabilized Snail2 through its deubiquitination by activating USP36, thus revealing Snail2 as a crucial mediator of the oncogenic effects of PRL1 in GBM pathogenesis. Finally, PRL1 protein levels were positively correlated with that of Snail2 and predicted poor outcome of GBMs. Collectively, our data support that PRL1 promotes GBM progression by activating USP36-mediated Snail2 deubiquitination. This novel PRL1/USP36/Snail2 axis may be a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma.