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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Stefano Anzani ◽  
Loreta Cannito ◽  
Fabio Bellia ◽  
Alberto Di Domenico ◽  
Bernardo Dell’Osso ◽  

Individual differences in temporal and probabilistic discounting are associated with a wide range of life outcomes in literature. Traditional approaches have focused on impulsiveness and cognitive control skills, on goal-oriented personality traits as well as on the psychological perception of time. More recently, literature started to consider the role of social and contextual factors in discounting behavior. Between others, higher generalized trust in human beings and specific trust in people who will deliver the future/probabilistic rewards have been related to a stronger willingness to wait and to assume risk. Moreover, the tendency to trust others has been associated with the oxytocin receptor gene regulation that can be modified by life experiences. In this perspective, we hypothesized that differences in the tendency to wait and to take risks for a more desirable reward according to the proposer’s trustworthiness could be related to a different level of DNA methylation at the oxytocin receptor gene. Findings confirmed that participants are less willing to wait and to risk when the proposer is considered highly untrustworthy and revealed how higher oxytocin receptor gene DNA methylation is associated with a stronger effect due to the presence of an untrustworthy proposer. Limits and future directions are outlined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 758
Xiubing Gao ◽  
Xianfeng Hu ◽  
Feixu Mo ◽  
Yi Ding ◽  
Ming Li ◽  

Using of plant essential oil that coevolved as a defense mechanism against agriculture insects is an alternative means of controlling many insect pests. In order to repel brown planthoppers (BPHs), the most notorious rice insect pest, a new film based on guar gum incorporated with citral (GC film) was formulated, which was effective while being environmentally friendly. In this paper, the effect and mechanism of GC film repellency against BPHs were determined. Repellent activity test and olfactory reaction analysis showed that GC film had repellency effect against BPHs, with repellency of 60.00% and 73.93%, respectively. The result of olfactory reaction indicated that GC film repellency against BPHs relied on smell. EPG analysis showed the proportion and mean duration of np waveform were significantly higher than in CK and increased following the treatment concentration, which indicated that GC film affected the recognition of BPHs to rice. Further analysis by RNA sequencing analysis showed a total of 679 genes were significantly upregulated and 284 genes were significantly downregulated in the BPHs fed on the rice sprayed with GC film compared to control. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene 797 and gustatory receptor gene (GR)/odorant receptor (OR) gene 13110 showed a significant decrease in differential expression and significant increase in differential expression, respectively. There were 0.66 and 2.55 differential expression multiples between treated BPHs and control, respectively. According to the results described above, we reasoned that GC film repellency against BPHs due to smell, by release of citral, caused the recognition difficulties for BPHs to rice, and OBP gene 797 and GR/OR gene 13110 appeared to be the crucial candidate genes for GC film repellency against BPHs. The present study depicted a clear and consistent repellency effect for GC film against BPHs and preliminarily clarified the mechanism of GC film as a repellent against BPHs, which might offer an alternative approach for control of BPHs in the near future. Our results could also help in the development and improvement of GC films.

2022 ◽  
Cassondra Vernier ◽  
kathleen Zelle ◽  
Nicole Leitner ◽  
Xitong Liang ◽  
Sean Halloran ◽  

Optimal mating decisions depend on the robust coupling of signal production and perception because independent changes in either could carry a fitness cost. However, since the perception and production of mating signals are often mediated by different tissues and cell types, the mechanisms that drive and maintain their coupling remain unknown for most animal species. Here, we show that in Drosophila, sensory perception and production of an inhibitory mating pheromone are co-regulated by Gr8a, a member of the Gustatory receptor gene family. Specifically, we found that the pleiotropic action of Gr8a independently regulates the perception of pheromones by the chemosensory systems of males and females, as well as their production in the fat body and oenocytes of males. These findings provide a relatively simple molecular explanation for how pleiotropic receptors maintain robust mating signaling systems at the population and species levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Flurin Cathomas ◽  
Laura Bevilacqua ◽  
Aarthi Ramakrishnan ◽  
Hope Kronman ◽  
Sara Costi ◽  

AbstractKetamine has rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, the underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. There is increasing evidence that TRD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state and that ketamine may inhibit inflammatory processes. We thus investigated whole blood transcriptional profiles related to TRD and gene expression changes associated with treatment response to ketamine. Whole blood was collected at baseline (21 healthy controls [HC], 26 patients with TRD) and then again in patients with TRD 24 hours following a single intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg). We performed RNA-sequencing and analyzed (a) baseline transcriptional profiles between patients with TRD and HC, (b) responders vs. non-responders before ketamine treatment, and (c) gene expression signatures associated with clinical improvement. At baseline, patients with TRD compared to HC showed a gene expression signature indicative of interferon signaling pathway activation. Prior to ketamine administration, the metabotropic glutamate receptor gene GRM2 and the ionotropic glutamate receptor gene GRIN2D were upregulated in responders compared to non-responders. Response to ketamine was associated with a distinct transcriptional signature, however, we did not observe gene expression changes indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. Future studies are needed to determine the role of the peripheral immune system in the antidepressant effect of ketamine.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 154
Naveed Mushtaq ◽  
Yong Wang ◽  
Junmiao Fan ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Jing Ding

Environmental stresses negatively affect the growth and development of plants. Several previous studies have elucidated the response mechanisms of plants to drought and heat applied separately; however, these two abiotic stresses often coincide in environmental conditions. The global climate change pattern has projected that combined drought and heat stresses will tend to increase in the near future. In this study, we down-regulated the expression of a cytokinin receptor gene SlHK2 using RNAi and investigated the role of this gene in regulating plant responses to individual drought, heat, and combined stresses (drought + heat) in tomato. Compared to the wild-type (WT), SlHK2 RNAi plants exhibited fewer stress symptoms in response to individual and combined stress treatments. The enhanced abiotic stress tolerance of SlHK2 RNAi plants can be associated with increased membrane stability, osmoprotectant accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, photosynthesis machinery was also protected in SlHK2 RNAi plants. Collectively, our results show that down-regulation of the cytokinin receptor gene SlHK2, and consequently cytokinin signaling, can improve plant tolerance to drought, heat, and combined stress.

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