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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 717-723
Author(s):  
Bing Pan ◽  
Binghui Liu ◽  
Juhua Pan ◽  
Jian Xin ◽  
Chenglin Fu

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) developed in the glandular epithelial tissue of breast. microRNA (miR)-367 is an important player in cancer progression, but has never been studied in BC. This experiment tries to probe the mechanism of miR-367 in BC treatment with downstream target gene. Materials and Methods: Human BC cell lines and healthy breast epithelium cells were applied in this study. After the transfection of miR-367 inhibitor or mimic into BC cells, functional assays were conducted to measure cell growth. Afterwards, flow cytometry was employed in apoptosis verification. Then, target relation between miR-367 and ARID1B was certified. Furthermore, ARID1B level was also measured. Results: miR-367 was underexpressed in human BC cells (p < 0.05). Besides, overexpressed miR-367 inhibited BC cell proliferation and encouraged apoptosis, while underexpressed miR-367 led to an opposite outcome (p < 0.05). This experiment then implied that miR-367 dramatically suppressed the activity of cell transfected with ARID1B-wild type. miR-367 overexpression quenched ARID1B level in BC cells; while silencing miR-367 upregulated ARID1B expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our experiment discovered that miR-367 quenched BC cell growth and promoted apoptosis by targeting ARID1B. This investigation may provide novel insights in BC treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Fei Zheng ◽  
Meijing Zhang ◽  
Yiwen Zhen ◽  
Jianhua Yuan ◽  
Wenming Zhao ◽  
...  

The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a &ldquo;scar-like&rdquo; crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a &ldquo;scar-like&rdquo; crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.


Plant Methods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Cuihong Xu ◽  
Lingkun Zhong ◽  
Zeming Huang ◽  
Chenying Li ◽  
Jiazhang Lian ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most devastating bacterial plant pathogens, is the causal agent of bacterial wilt. Recently, several studies on resistance to bacterial wilt have been conducted using the Arabidopsis-R. solanacearum system. However, the progress of R. solanacearum infection in Arabidopsis is still unclear. Results We generated a bioluminescent R. solanacearum by expressing plasmid-based luxCDABE. Expression of luxCDABE did not alter the bacterial growth and pathogenicity. The light intensity of bioluminescent R. solanacearum was linearly related to bacterial concentrations from 104 to 108 CFU·mL−1. After root inoculation with bioluminescent R. solanacearum strain, light signals in tomato and Arabidopsis were found to be transported from roots to stems via the vasculature. Quantification of light intensity from the bioluminescent strain accurately reported the difference in disease resistance between Arabidopsis wild type and resistant mutants. Conclusions Bioluminescent R. solanacearum strain spatially and quantitatively measured bacterial growth in tomato and Arabidopsis, and offered a tool for the high-throughput study of R. solanacearum-Arabidopsis interaction in the future.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261675
Author(s):  
Afroza Ferdouse ◽  
Rishi R. Agrawal ◽  
Madeleine A. Gao ◽  
Hongfeng Jiang ◽  
William S. Blaner ◽  
...  

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to a spectrum of liver disease that is associated with significant global mortality and morbidity. Alcohol is known to deplete hepatic vitamin A content, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. It has been suggested that induction of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) contributes to alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion, but the possible contributions of other retinoid-catabolizing CYPs have not been well studied. The main objective of this study was to better understand alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion and test the hypothesis that alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic vitamin A is due to CYP-mediated oxidative catabolism. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, including wild type and Cyp2e1 -/- mice. Our results show that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with decreased levels of hepatic retinol, retinyl esters, and retinoic acid. Moreover, the depletion of hepatic retinoid is associated with the induction of multiple retinoid catabolizing CYPs, including CYP26A1, and CYP26B1 in alcohol fed wild type mice. In Cyp2e1 -/- mice, alcohol-induced retinol decline is blunted but retinyl esters undergo a change in their acyl composition and decline upon alcohol exposure like WT mice. In conclusion, the alcohol induced decline in hepatic vitamin A content is associated with increased expression of multiple retinoid-catabolizing CYPs, including the retinoic acid specific hydroxylases CYP26A1 and CYP26B1.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2105898119
Author(s):  
Yiji Liao ◽  
Chen-Hao Chen ◽  
Tengfei Xiao ◽  
Bárbara de la Peña Avalos ◽  
Eloise V. Dray ◽  
...  

Drugs that block the activity of the methyltransferase EZH2 are in clinical development for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas harboring EZH2 gain-of-function mutations that enhance its polycomb repressive function. We have previously reported that EZH2 can act as a transcriptional activator in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Now we show that EZH2 inhibitors can also block the transactivation activity of EZH2 and inhibit the growth of CRPC cells. Gene expression and epigenomics profiling of cells treated with EZH2 inhibitors demonstrated that in addition to derepressing gene expression, these compounds also robustly down-regulate a set of DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, especially those involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Methylation of the pioneer factor FOXA1 by EZH2 contributes to the activation of these genes, and interaction with the transcriptional coactivator P300 via the transactivation domain on EZH2 directly turns on the transcription. In addition, CRISPR-Cas9–mediated knockout screens in the presence of EZH2 inhibitors identified these BER genes as the determinants that underlie the growth-inhibitory effect of EZH2 inhibitors. Interrogation of public data from diverse types of solid tumors expressing wild-type EZH2 demonstrated that expression of DDR genes is significantly correlated with EZH2 dependency and cellular sensitivity to EZH2 inhibitors. Consistent with these findings, treatment of CRPC cells with EZH2 inhibitors dramatically enhances their sensitivity to genotoxic stress. These studies reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism of action of EZH2 inhibitors and provide a mechanistic basis for potential combination cancer therapies.


Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Author(s):  
Mei Fu ◽  
Xiaona Lin ◽  
Yining Zhou ◽  
Chunmei Zhang ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  
...  

RNA editing is essential for compensating for defects or mutations in haploid organelle genomes and is regulated by numerous trans-factors. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the prime factors that are involved in RNA editing; however, many have not yet been identified. Here, we screened the plastid-targeted PLS-DYW subfamily of PPR proteins belonging to Arabidopsis thaliana and identified ORGANELLE TRANSCRIPT PROCESSING 970 (OTP970) as a key player in RNA editing in plastids. A loss-of-function otp970 mutant was impaired in RNA editing of ndhB transcripts at site 149 (ndhB-C149). RNA-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that OTP970 was associated with the ndhB-C149 site. The complementation of the otp970 mutant with OTP970 lacking the DYW domain (OTP970∆DYW) failed to restore the RNA editing of ndhB-C149. ndhB gene encodes the B subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex; however, neither NDH activity and stability nor NDH-PSI supercomplex formation were affected in otp970 mutant compared to the wild type, indicating that alteration in amino acid sequence is not necessary for NdhB function. Together, these results suggest that OTP970 is involved in the RNA editing of ndhB-C149 and that the DYW domain is essential for its function.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ronald S Flannagan ◽  
Jeremy R Brozyna ◽  
Brijesh Kumar ◽  
Lea A Adolf ◽  
Jeffrey J Power ◽  
...  

Acquisition of iron underpins the ability of pathogens to cause disease and Staphylococcus lugdunensis has increasingly been recognized as a pathogen that can cause serious infection. In this study, we sought to address the knowledge gap that exists regarding the iron acquisition mechanisms employed by S. lugdunensis, especially during infection of the mammalian host. Here we show that S. lugdunensis utilizes diverse genome encoded iron acquisition mechanisms to satisfy its need for this nutrient. Indeed, S. lugdunensis can usurp hydroxamate siderophores, and staphyloferrin A and B from S. aureus, using the fhuC ATPase-encoding gene. Acquisition of catechol siderophores and catecholamine stress hormones necessitates the presence of the sst-1 transporter-encoding locus, but not the sst-2 locus. Iron-dependent growth in acidic culture conditions necessitates the feoAB locus. Heme iron is acquired via expression of the iron-regulated surface determinant (isd) locus. During systemic infection of mice we demonstrate that while S. lugdunensis does not cause overt illness, it does colonize and proliferate to high numbers in the kidneys. By combining mutations in the various iron acquisition loci, we further demonstrate that only a strain mutated for all of isd, fhuC, sst-1, and feo, versus combination mutants carrying wild type copies of any one of those loci, was attenuated in its ability to proliferate to high numbers in kidneys. Taken together our data reveal that S. lugdunensis requires a repertoire of both heme and non-heme iron acquisition mechanisms to proliferate during systemic infection of mammals


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andreas Kolbeck ◽  
Peter Marhavý ◽  
Damien De Bellis ◽  
Baohai Li ◽  
Takehiro Kamiya ◽  
...  

Efficient uptake of nutrients in both animal and plant cells requires tissue-spanning diffusion barriers separating inner tissues from the outer lumen/soil. However, we poorly understand how such contiguous three-dimensional superstructures are formed in plants. Here, we show that correct establishment of the plant Casparian Strip (CS) network relies on local neighbor communication. We show that positioning of Casparian Strip membrane domains (CSDs) is tightly coordinated between neighbors in wild-type and that restriction of domain formation involves the putative extracellular protease LOTR1. Impaired domain restriction in lotr1 leads to fully functional CSDs at ectopic positions, forming 'half strips'. LOTR1 action in the endodermis requires its expression in the stele. LOTR1 endodermal expression cannot complement, while cortex expression causes a dominant-negative phenotype. Our findings establish LOTR1 as a crucial player in CSD positioning acting in a directional, non-cell-autonomous manner to restrict and coordinate CS positioning.


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