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2022 ◽  
Masahiro Nakano ◽  
Mineto Ota ◽  
Yusuke Takeshima ◽  
Yukiko Iwasaki ◽  
Hiroaki Hatano ◽  

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease involving multiple immune cells. A major hurdle to the elucidation of SLE pathogenesis is our limited understanding of dysregulated gene expression linked to various clinical statuses with a high cellular resolution. Here, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome study with 6,386 RNA sequencing data covering 27 immune cell types from 159 SLE and 89 healthy donors. We first profiled two distinct cell-type-specific transcriptomic signatures: disease-state and disease-activity signatures, reflecting disease establishment and exacerbation, respectively. We next identified candidate biological processes unique to each signature. This study suggested the clinical value of disease-activity signatures, which were associated with organ involvement and responses to therapeutic agents such as belimumab. However, disease-activity signatures were less enriched around SLE risk variants than disease-state signatures, suggesting that the genetic studies to date may not well capture clinically vital biology in SLE. Together, we identified comprehensive gene signatures of SLE, which will provide essential foundations for future genomic, genetic, and clinical studies.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Clara Martori ◽  
Lidia Sanchez-Moral ◽  
Tony Paul ◽  
Juan Carlos Pardo ◽  
Albert Font ◽  

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in men. The treatment for localized or locally advanced stages offers a high probability of cure. Even though the therapeutic landscape has significantly improved over the last decade, metastatic PC (mPC) still has a poor prognosis mainly due to the development of therapy resistance. In this context, the use of immunotherapy alone or in combination with other drugs has been explored in recent years. However, T-cell directed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown limited activity with inconclusive results in mPC patients, most likely due to the highly immunosuppressive PC tumor microenvironment (TME). In this scenario, targeting macrophages, a highly abundant immunosuppressive cell type in the TME, could offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve immunotherapy efficacy. In this review, we summarize the growing field of macrophage-directed immunotherapies and discuss how these could be applied in the treatment of mPC, focusing on their combination with ICIs.

2022 ◽  
Kerri L Miazgowicz ◽  
Judith Mary Reyes Ballista ◽  
Marissa D Acciani ◽  
Ariana R Jimenez ◽  
Ryan S Belloli ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the causative agent of the human disease chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by debilitating acute and chronic arthralgia. No licensed vaccines or antivirals exist for CHIKV. Preventing the attachment of viral particles to host cells is an attractive intervention strategy. Viral entry of enveloped viruses from diverse families including Filoviridae and Flaviviridae is mediated or enhanced by phosphatidylserine receptors (PSRs). PSRs facilitate the attachment of enveloped viruses to cells by binding to exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) in the viral lipid membrane - a process termed viral apoptotic mimicry. To investigate the role of viral apoptotic mimicry during CHIKV infection, we produced viral particles with discrete amounts of exposed PS on the virion envelope by exploiting the cellular distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane. We found that CHIKV particles containing high outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking flippase activity) were more infectious in Vero cells than particles containing low levels of outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking scramblase activity). However, the same viral particles were similarly infectious in NIH3T3 and HAP1 cells, suggesting PS levels can influence infectivity only in cells with high levels of PSRs. Interestingly, PS-dependent CHIKV entry was observed in mosquito Aag2 cells, but not C6/36 cells. These data demonstrate that CHIKV entry via viral apoptotic mimicry is cell-type dependent. Furthermore, viral apoptotic mimicry has a mechanistic basis to influence viral dynamics in vivo in both the human and mosquito host.

2022 ◽  
Takaho Tsuchiya ◽  
Hiroki Hori ◽  
Haruka Ozaki

Motivation: Cell-cell communications regulate internal cellular states of the cell, e.g., gene expression and cell functions, and play pivotal roles in normal development and disease states. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing methods have revealed cell-to-cell expression variability of highly variable genes (HVGs), which is also crucial. Nevertheless, the regulation on cell-to-cell expression variability of HVGs via cell-cell communications is still unexplored. The recent advent of spatial transcriptome measurement methods has linked gene expression profiles to the spatial context of single cells, which has provided opportunities to reveal those regulations. The existing computational methods extract genes with expression levels that are influenced by neighboring cell types based on the spatial transcriptome data. However, limitations remain in the quantitativeness and interpretability: it neither focuses on HVGs, considers cooperation of neighboring cell types, nor quantifies the degree of regulation with each neighboring cell type. Results: Here, we propose CCPLS (Cell-Cell communications analysis by Partial Least Square regression modeling), which is a statistical framework for identifying cell-cell communications as the effects of multiple neighboring cell types on cell-to-cell expression variability of HVGs, based on the spatial transcriptome data. For each cell type, CCPLS performs PLS regression modeling and reports coefficients as the quantitative index of the cell-cell communications. Evaluation using simulated data showed our method accurately estimated effects of multiple neighboring cell types on HVGs. Furthermore, by applying CCPLS to the two real datasets, we demonstrate CCPLS can be used to extract biologically interpretable insights from the inferred cell-cell communications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Kyra T. Newmaster ◽  
Fae A. Kronman ◽  
Yuan-ting Wu ◽  
Yongsoo Kim

The brain is composed of diverse neuronal and non-neuronal cell types with complex regional connectivity patterns that create the anatomical infrastructure underlying cognition. Remarkable advances in neuroscience techniques enable labeling and imaging of these individual cell types and their interactions throughout intact mammalian brains at a cellular resolution allowing neuroscientists to examine microscopic details in macroscopic brain circuits. Nevertheless, implementing these tools is fraught with many technical and analytical challenges with a need for high-level data analysis. Here we review key technical considerations for implementing a brain mapping pipeline using the mouse brain as a primary model system. Specifically, we provide practical details for choosing methods including cell type specific labeling, sample preparation (e.g., tissue clearing), microscopy modalities, image processing, and data analysis (e.g., image registration to standard atlases). We also highlight the need to develop better 3D atlases with standardized anatomical labels and nomenclature across species and developmental time points to extend the mapping to other species including humans and to facilitate data sharing, confederation, and integrative analysis. In summary, this review provides key elements and currently available resources to consider while developing and implementing high-resolution mapping methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Akinobu Senoo ◽  
Yutaro Yamada ◽  
Kento Ojima ◽  
Tomohiro Doura ◽  
Itaru Hamachi ◽  

Cell-surface receptors play a pivotal role as transducers of extracellular input. Although different cell types express the same receptor, the physiological roles of the receptor are highly dependent on cell type. To understand each role, tactics for cell-specific activation of the target receptor are in high demand. Herein, we developed an orthogonal activation method targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), a G-protein coupled receptor. In this method, direct activation via coordination-based chemogenetics (dA-CBC) was adopted, where activation of mGlu1 was artificially induced by a protein conformational change in response to the coordination of a metal ion or metal-ion complex. Our structure-based protein design and screening approach identified mGlu1 mutants that were directly activated by the coordination of Cu2+ or Zn2+, in addition to our previous Pd-complex-sensitive mGlu1 mutant. Notably, the activation of the mutants was mutually orthogonal, resulting in cell-type selective activation in a model system using HEK293 cells.

2022 ◽  
Prasanna Katti ◽  
Alexander S Hall ◽  
Peter T Ajayi ◽  
Yuho Kim ◽  
T Bradley Willingham ◽  

Sustained muscle contraction occurs through interactions between actin and myosin filaments within sarcomeres and requires a constant supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from nearby mitochondria. However, it remains unclear how different physical configurations between sarcomeres and mitochondria alter the energetic support for contractile function. Here, we show that sarcomere cross-sectional area (CSA) varies along its length in a cell type-dependent manner where the reduction in Z-disk CSA relative to the sarcomere center is closely coordinated with mitochondrial network configuration. Further, we find myosin filaments near the sarcomere periphery are curved relative to interior filaments with greater curvature for filaments near mitochondria compared to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we demonstrate myosin filament lattice spacing is smaller at filament ends than filament centers in a cell type-dependent manner. These data suggest that both sarcomere structure and myofilament interactions are influenced by the location and orientation of mitochondria within a muscle cell.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Bin-Hsu Mao ◽  
Yi-Kai Luo ◽  
Bour-Jr Wang ◽  
Chun-Wan Chen ◽  
Fong-Yu Cheng ◽  

Abstract Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered a double-edged sword that demonstrates beneficial and harmful effects depending on their dimensions and surface coating types. However, mechanistic understanding of the size- and coating-dependent effects of AgNPs in vitro and in vivo remains elusive. We adopted an in silico decision tree-based knowledge-discovery-in-databases process to prioritize the factors affecting the toxic potential of AgNPs, which included exposure dose, cell type and AgNP type (i.e., size and surface coating), and exposure time. This approach also contributed to effective knowledge integration between cell-based phenomenological observations and in vitro/in vivo mechanistic explorations. Results The consolidated cell viability assessment results were used to create a tree model for generalizing cytotoxic behavior of the four AgNP types: SCS, LCS, SAS, and LAS. The model ranked the toxicity-related parameters in the following order of importance: exposure dose > cell type > particle size > exposure time ≥ surface coating. Mechanistically, larger AgNPs appeared to provoke greater levels of autophagy in vitro, which occurred during the earlier phase of both subcytotoxic and cytotoxic exposures. Furthermore, apoptosis rather than necrosis majorly accounted for compromised cell survival over the above dosage range. Intriguingly, exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of AgNPs induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and senescence instead. At the organismal level, SCS following a single intraperitoneal injection was found more toxic to BALB/c mice as compared to SAS. Both particles could be deposited in various target organs (e.g., spleen, liver, and kidneys). Morphological observation, along with serum biochemical and histological analyses, indicated that AgNPs could produce pancreatic toxicity, apart from leading to hepatic inflammation. Conclusions Our integrated in vitro, in silico, and in vivo study revealed that AgNPs exerted toxicity in dose-, cell/organ type- and particle type-dependent manners. More importantly, a single injection of lethal-dose AgNPs (i.e., SCS and SAS) could incur severe damage to pancreas and raise blood glucose levels at the early phase of exposure.

2022 ◽  
Lauren Anton ◽  
Briana Ferguson ◽  
Elliot S. Friedman ◽  
Kristin Gerson ◽  
Amy G. Brown ◽  

Abstract Background: The cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome is highly associated with vaginal health and disease in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. An overabundance of Gardnerella vaginalis in the CV space is commonly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexually transmitted diseases and preterm birth while the presence of Lactobacillus spp is often associated with reproductive health. While host-microbial interactions are hypothesized to contribute to CV health and disease, the mechanisms by which these interactions regulate CV epithelial function remain largely unknown. Results: Using an in vitro co-culture model, we assessed the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus and G. vaginalis on the CV epithelial barrier, the immune mediators that could be contributing to decreased barrier integrity and the immune signaling pathways regulating the immune response. G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, significantly increased epithelial cell death and decreased epithelial barrier integrity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. A G. vaginalis-mediated epithelial immune response including NFkB activation and proinflammatory cytokine release was initiated partially through TLR2 dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, investigation of the cytokine immune profile in human CV fluid showed distinctive clustering of cytokines by G. vaginalis abundance and birth outcome. Conclusions: The results of this study show both microbe- and epithelial cell-type specific effects on CV epithelial function. Altered epithelial barrier function through cell death and immune mediated mechanisms by G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, indicates that host epithelial cells respond to bacteria-associated signals, resulting in altered epithelial function and ultimately CV disease. Additionally, distinct immune signatures associated with G. vaginalis or birth outcome provide further evidence that host-microbial interactions may contribute significantly to the biological mechanisms regulating reproductive outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Luisa Santus ◽  
Raquel García-Pérez ◽  
Maria Sopena-Rios ◽  
Aaron E Lin ◽  
Gordon C Adams ◽  

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pivotal mediators of systemic immune response to viral infection, yet most studies concerning their expression and functions upon immune stimulation are limited to in vitro bulk cell populations. This strongly constrains our understanding of how lncRNA expression varies at single-cell resolution, and how their cell-type specific immune regulatory roles may differ compared to protein-coding genes. Here, we perform the first in-depth characterization of lncRNA expression variation at single-cell resolution during Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in vivo. Using bulk RNA-sequencing from 119 samples and 12 tissue types, we significantly expand the current macaque lncRNA annotation. We then profile lncRNA expression variation in immune circulating single-cells during EBOV infection and find that lncRNAs' expression in fewer cells is a major differentiating factor from their protein-coding gene counterparts. Upon EBOV infection, lncRNAs present dynamic and mostly cell-type specific changes in their expression profiles especially in monocytes, the main cell type targeted by EBOV. Such changes are associated with gene regulatory modules related to important innate immune responses such as interferon response and purine metabolism. Within infected cells, several lncRNAs have positively and negatively correlated expression with viral load, suggesting that expression of some of these lncRNAs might be directly hijacked by EBOV to attack host cells. This study provides novel insights into the roles that lncRNAs play in the host response to acute viral infection and paves the way for future lncRNA studies at single-cell resolution.

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