Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
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Published By Bentham Science


Mukul Sharma ◽  
Pushpendra Singh

Abstract: TlyA proteins are related to distinct functions in a diverse spectrum of bacterial pathogens including mycobacterial spp. There are several annotated proteins function as hemolysin or pore forming molecules that play an important role in the virulence of pathogenic organisms. Many studies reported the dual activity of mycobacterial TlyA as ‘hemolysin’ and ‘S-adenosylmethionine dependent rRNA methylase’. To act as a hemolysin, a sequence must have a signal sequence and transmembrane segment which helps the protein to enter the extracellular environment. Interestingly, the mycobacterial tlyA has neither a traditional signal sequences of general/sec/tat pathways nor any transmembrane segments are present. Still it can reach the extracellular milieu with the help of non-classical signal mechanisms. Also, retention of tlyA in cultivable mycobacterial pathogens (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. marinum) as well as uncultivated mycobacterial pathogens despite their extreme reductive evolution (such as M. leprae, M. lepromatosis and M. uberis) suggests its crucial role in evolutionary biology of pathogenic mycobacteria. Numerous virulence factors have been characterised from the uncultivable mycobacteria but the information of TlyA protein is still limited in terms of molecular and structural characterisation. The genomic insights offered by comparative analysis of TlyA sequences and its conserved domains reveal its pore forming activity which further confirms its role as a virulence protein, particularly in uncultivable mycobacteria. Therefore, this review presents a comparative analysis of mycobacterial TlyA family by sequence homology and alignment to improve our understanding of this unconventional hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase TlyA of uncultivable mycobacteria.

Rituraj Niranjan ◽  
Muthukumaravel Subramanian ◽  
Devaraju Panneer ◽  
Sanjay Kumar Ojha

Background: Diesel exhaust particulates (DEPs) affect lung physiology and cause serious damage to the lungs. A number of studies demonstrated that, eosinophils play a very important role in the development of tissue remodelling and fibrosis of lungs. However, the exact mechanism of pathogenesis of tissue remodelling and fibrosis is not known. Methods: Both in vitro and in vivo models were used in the study. HL-60 and A549 cells were used in the study. Balb/C mice of 8 to 12 weeks old were used for in vivo study. Cell viability by MTT assay, RNA isolation by tri reagent was accomplished. mRNA expression of inflammatory genes were accomplished by real time PCR or qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was done to asses the localization and expressions of proteins. One way ANOVA followed by post hoc test were done for the statistical analysis. Graph-Pad Prism software was used for statistical analysis. Results: We for the first time demonstrate that, Interleukin-13 plays a very important role in the development of tissue remodelling and fibrosis. We report that, diesel exhaust particles significantly induce eosinophils cell proliferation and interleukin-13 release in in vitro culture conditions. Supernatant collected from DEP-induced eosinophils cells significantly restrict cell proliferation of epithelial cells in response to exposure of diesel exhast particles. Furthermore, purified interleukin-13 decreases the proliferation of A549 cells, highliting the involvement of IL-13 in tissue remodeling. Notably, Etoricoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor) did not inhibit DEP-triggered release of interleukin-13, suggesting another cell signalling pathway. The in vivo exposer of DEP to the lungs of mice, resulted in high level of eosinophils degranulation as depicted by the EPX-1 immunostaining and altered level of mRNA expressions of inflammatory genes. We also found that, a-SMA, fibroblast specific protein (FSP-1) has been changed in response to DEP in the mice lungs along with the mediators of inflammation. Conclusion: Altogether, we elucidated, the mechanistic role of eosinophils and IL-13 in the DEP-triggered proliferation of lungs cells thus providing an inside in the pathophysiology of tissue remodelling and fibrosis of lungs.

Jobin Jose ◽  
Shifali S. ◽  
Bijo Mathew ◽  
Della Grace Thomas Parambi

Abstract: The modern pharmaceutical industry is creating a transition from traditional methods to advanced technologies like artificial intelligence. In the current scenario, continuous efforts are being made to incorporate computational modelling and simulation in drug discovery, development, design, and optimization. With the advancement in technology and modernization, many pharmaceutical companies are approaching in silico trials to develop safe and efficacious medicinal products. To obtain marketing authorization for a medicinal product from the concerned National regulatory Authority, manufacturers must provide evidence for the safety, efficacy, and quality of medical products in the form of in vitro or in vivo methods. However, more recently this evidence was provided to regulatory agencies in the form of modelling and simulation, i.e., in silico evidence. Such evidence (computational or experimental) will only be accepted by the regulatory authorities if it considered as qualified by them and this will require the assessment of the overall credibility of the method. One must consider the scrutiny provided by the regulatory authority to develop or use the new in silico evidence. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency are the two regulatory agencies in the world that accept and encourage the use of modelling and simulation within the regulatory process. More efforts must be made by other regulatory agencies worldwide to incorporate such new evidence, i.e., modelling and simulation (in silico) within the regulatory process. This review article focuses on the approaches of in silico trials, its verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification involved in the regulatory evaluation of biomedical products that utilize predictive models.

Mahsa Lotfi Omran ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Vahdat ◽  
Farhosh Kiani Barforosh

Background: Ag–TiO2 nanoparticles catalyzed synthesis of 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]-xanthen-11-ones have been enhanced via a three-component one-pot reaction betweenβ–naphthol, several aldehydes and dimedone in H2O at room temperature. Xanthenes are essential intermediates in chemistry owing to their vast difference in biological activity. Methods: This process offered significant advantages containing appropriate cost efficiency, low amount of the catalyst, application of low-cost available Ag–TiO2 nanoparticles catalyst, purification of the product by non-chromatographic method, easy process, good atom economy, simple isolation and reusability of nanocatalyst. Result: Ag–TiO2 nanoparticles catalyst shows easy access to Xanthenes with appropriate yields in short reaction time and purity. This nanoparticles catalyst was recycled and recovered by easy filtration and was reused up to five times with only an unimportant loss in its catalytic efficacy. Conclusion: This method achieves to have a numerous scope relating to the difference in the aldehydes. Correspondingly, the attractive of this research was that H2O was the only by-products.

Gerald H. Lushington

Sudipta Jena ◽  
Asit Ray ◽  
Ambika Sahoo ◽  
Prabhat Kumar Das ◽  
Pradeep Kumar Kamila ◽  

Background: The essential oils isolated from several medicinal plants are reported to have anticancer activities. Both the essential oil and extracts of many Piper species (Piperaceae) possess potential cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines and are being used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of cancer. There is a need to evaluate and validate the anticancer properties of essential oils extracted from other wild species of Piper. Objective: The current research was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigate the anti-proliferative activity of wild growing Piper trioicum leaf essential oil. The selected five major constituents were subjected to molecular docking to identify possible modes of binding against serine/threonine-protein kinase (MST3) protein Methods: The essential oil of leaf of P. trioicum was extracted by hydro distillation method and its chemical composition was carried out by GC-FID and GC-MS. The anti-proliferative activity of the essential oil was evaluated by MTT assay against normal (3T3-L1) and various cancer (HCT 116, HT-29, PC-3 and HepG2) cell lines. Molecular docking analysis was performed using AutoDock 4.2 software. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the major constituents were determined using absorption, distribution, metabolization, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) analysis. Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed the identification of 45 constituents with δ-cadinene (19.57%), germacrene-D (8.54%), β-caryophyllene (6.84%), 1-epi-cubenol (4.83%) and α-pinene (4.52%) were found to be predominant constituents in the leaf essential oil of P. trioicum. The highest cytotoxicity of essential oil was observed against HT-29 cells (IC50 value of 33.14 µg/ml). 1-epi-cubenol and δ-Cadinene exhibited low binding energy values of -6.25 and -5.92 kcal/mol, respectively. For prediction of in silico pharmacokinetic and druglike properties of the major compounds, ADMET prediction tool was also used, the results of which came within the ideal range. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrated that P. trioicum essential oil possesses significant anti-proliferative activity and could be effective against cancer treatment.

Katarzyna Kowalik ◽  
Natalia Miękus ◽  
Tomasz Bączek

Background: L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid, necessary for the human body to function. Its degradation occurs through two metabolic pathways. Approximately 95% of the L-tryptophan available in the body is converted via the kynurenine pathway, while the remainder is degraded via the serotonin pathway. Properly maintained balance between the concentrations of individual small molecular metabolites is extremely important to maintain homeostasis in the human body, and its disruption could lead to the development of numerous neurological, neurodegenerative, neoplastic, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Recent reports suggested that by controlling the levels of selected L-tryptophan metabolites (potential biomarkers), it is possible to diagnose numerous diseases, monitor their course and assess patient prognosis. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the currently important clinical applications of selected biomarkers from the L-tryptophan metabolism pathways that would be helpful in early diagnosis, monitoring the course and treatment of serious diseases of affluence, which ultimately could improve the patients’ quality of life, as well as support targeted therapy of the aforementioned diseases. Conclusion: Since the biochemical biomarkers determination in body fluids presents the ideal minimally invasive tool in the patents’ diagnosis and prognostication, the topic is up-to-date and, importantly, emphasized the current trends and perspectives of application of analysis of selected L-tryptophan metabolites named kynurenine and serotonin-derived small compounds in the routine medical procedures.

Adarsh Sahu ◽  
Jyotika Mishra ◽  
Namrata Kushwaha

: The advancement of computing and technology has invaded all the dimensions of science. Artificial intelligence (AI) is one core branch of Computer Science, which has percolated to all the arenas of science and technology, from core engineering to medicines. Thus, AI has found its way for application in the field of medicinal chemistry and heath care. The conventional methods of drug design have been replaced by computer-aided designs of drugs in recent times. AI is being used extensively to improve the design techniques and required time of the drugs. Additionally, the target proteins can be conveniently identified using AI, which enhances the success rate of the designed drug. The AI technology is used in each step of the drug designing procedure, which decreases the health hazards related to preclinical trials and also reduces the cost substantially. The AI is an effective tool for data mining based on the huge pharmacological data and machine learning process. Hence, AI has been used in de novo drug design, activity scoring, virtual screening and in silico evaluation in the properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) of a drug molecule. Various pharmaceutical companies have teamed up with AI companies for faster progress in the field of drug development, along with the healthcare system. The review covers various aspects of AI (Machine learning, Deep learning, Artificial neural networks) in drug design. It also provides a brief overview of the recent progress by the pharmaceutical companies in drug discovery by associating with different AI companies.

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